5

PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION

[Promotion of Cleaner Technologies, Taj Protection Mission, Environmental Epidemiological Studies, Pollution Control in 17 Categories of identified highly polluting industries, Development of Environmental Standards, Zoning Atlas for siting of industries, Control of Vehicular Pollution, Central Pollution Control Board and Hazardous Substances Management]


Index


Introduction

The Ministry adopted a Policy Statement for Abatement of Pollution in 1992, which inter alia provides several instruments in the form of regulations, legislation, agreements, fiscal incentives and various other measures to prevent and abate pollution of air, water, noise and land. After the adoption of the Policy Statement, the Ministry and its associated offices has focussed various programmes and schemes to prevent and control of pollution at the beginning of the pipeline by adoption of cleaner technologies, waste minimization and resource preservation rather than the traditional treatment at the end of the pipe line. The significant benefits in this approach is that when waste is reduced/eliminated or solvents are revived, it leads to resource conservation of the raw materials used during the various industrial processes and minimize the pollutants in the waste water within the premises.

Keeping these benefits into consideration, the main focus of the pollution prevention and abatement programme, has been laid on command and control methods as well as voluntary regulations, development of environmental standards, waste minimization circles, environmental audit, environmental epidemiological studies, preparation of zoning atlas for siting of industries, control of vehicular pollution, promotion of education and awareness campaign, etc.

Major activities carried out under several programmes/schemes during the year are outlined as follows:

Index

Development and Promotion of Cleaner Technologies

Life Cycle Assessment in the Steel Sector

With an objective of optimum utilization of resources, Life Cycle Assessment Study in the Steel Sector has been initiated with joint funding of the Ministry and three identified steel plants, viz. Bhilai Steel Plant, SAIL; Jamshedpur Steel Plant of TISCO, and Vizag Plant of Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. (RINL), Life Cycle Assessment is a management tool which examines from the "cradle to grave" all the issues associated with production, use, disposal and recycling of a given product including extraction of raw materials for its manufacture.

The steel sector LCA study examines in detail the extraction of coal, iron, are, limestone at the mining stage and the use of these raw materials in different processes at the Steel Plant. A flow chart linking pollutants and principal operations in an integrated Steel plant is given in Fig 59. To facilitate data collection and its analysis in a systematic manner, a Software Package developed by Ecobilin France was procured and training organised for the concerned officers from the participating institutions.

[Image]

Fig 59. Flow Chart linking pollutants and principal operations in an integrated steel plant

Index

Natural Resource Accounting in Upper Yamuna (NRA)

A study covering the Upper Yamuna Basin has been taken up to prepare Nature Resource Accounting (NRA) framework to correlate it with the corresponding Economic Accounts as presented annually in the Budget. Most of the production units consume inputs like raw materials, energy, water and even manpower far in excess of the accepted Bench marks per unit of production with the result that the precious natural resource gets wasted without generating commensurate wealth. The wastage can largely be plugged through devising and implementing appropriate technological and management interventions to ensure a more consistent and better stream of benefits from the same resource base. This multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional study has been completed and the draft report is being finalised.

Index

New Initiatives

Index

Adoption of Clean Technologies in Small Scale Industries

The scheme for promotion, development and adoption of clean technologies including waste reuse and recycling formulated earlier for small-scale industries is being continued. During the year the following activities have been carried out under this scheme:

The following projects have been undertaken during the year:

Index

Waste Minimisation in Small Scale Industries

A project on Waste Minimization in Small Scale Industries has been launched with the National Productivity Council as a nodal agency under the World Bank assisted industrial pollution prevention project. Under the capacity building activity of this project, National Productivity Council has trained about 118 participants from 84 organisations. Of this, 74 organisations have been selected who could act as facilitators for promoting the concept of waste minimization and establishing and running Waste Minimization Circles (WMCs). Of this, 24 facilitators have succeeded in establishing the 43 WMCs in different sectors. These circles are in various stages of functioning.

During the year, an expert has been engaged by the Ministry to evaluate and assess the progress of the project Waste Minimization in Small Scale Industries.

Index

Taj Protection Mission

Consequent to the Supreme Court orders dated 4.9.96 in the Write Petition No.13381/84, the Planning Commission estimated (in consultation with the State Govt.) an amount of Rs 600 crores on a 50:50 percent (Centre-State) matching basis to implement various schemes relating to protection of the Taj Mahal.

A Mission Management Board under the Chairmanship of the Chief Secretary, U.P. has been constituted for overseeing the implementation, monitoring and reviewing of the various programmes/schemes formulated for the protection of the Taj Mahal. Schemes were submitted relating to uninterrupted power supply, augmentation of water supply, improvement of drainage and sanitation, city tree plantation in the context of environmental protection of the Taj Mahal.

The EFC Memo giving details of the schemes on Taj Protection Mission was approved and the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved schemes of Rs. 222.21 crores for the following 10 projects:

---------------------------------------------------------------
Sl. 	Projects	   			Amount 	
No.						Sanctioned
						(Rs. in crores)
---------------------------------------------------------------
1	Improvement in Electric Supply	
	at Agra-Part II				9.11
2	Improvement in Electric Supply 	
	in & Around the rural areas of 
	Agra & Fatehpur Sikri			39.09
3	Water Supply (Agra)			72.8	
4	Water Supply (Mathura-Vrindavan)	42
5	Gokul Barrage				12.5	
6	Solid Waste Management in Agra city	7.49
7	Storm Water Drainage System (Agra)	6.59	
8	Construction of one part of 
	Agra Bye-pass				10.65
9	Widening of Agra Bye-pass		0.75	
10	Improvement of Master Plan of 
	roads of Agra city			21.22
---------------------------------------------------------------
	Total					222.21 
---------------------------------------------------------------

During the year, a sum of Rs. 12.5 crores has been provided for different schemes under the Taj Protection Mission.

Index

The ADB Project in Agra

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved a Technical Assistance (TA) to Government of India to prepare a feasibility study for the Environmental Improvement and Sustainable Development of the Agra-Mathura-Ferozabad (AMF) Trapezium of Uttar Pradesh, including the restoration of Taj Mahal, the world renowned cultural and heritage monument. The main objective of this TA is to provide a comprehensive assessment of the prevailing situation in the Taj-Trapezium and recommend mitigation measures for improvement by formulating appropriate project for possible bank financing in the next phase.

An agreement has been signed by the DEA and the ADB. The ADB has selected the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) New Delhi as the consultant of this project. The TERI has prepared the Draft Final Report of this project and has submitted to DEA. Comments was sought by DEA on this report and the comments have been sent by this Ministry to DEA for finalization of the Report. The Draft report is being finalised. Department of Economic Affairs (DEA) of the Ministry of Finance is the Executing Agency of the TA.

Index

Taj Observatory Project

The India Meteorological Department (IMD) has been maintaining an Environmental Meteorology Unit at New Delhi and a field observatory at Taj Mahal, Agra to render necessary meteorological support to this Ministry. The Unit at Delhi also provides specific views to the Ministry of Environment and Forests for assessment of environmental impacts of Industrial and Thermal Power projects along with the analysis of the meteorological data collected at Taj Observatory, Agra.

Index

Environmental Epidemiological Studies

Environmental epidemiological studies have been initiated in eleven areas to assess the health manifestations in these areas viz. Vapi (Gujarat) Chembur (Maharastra), Cochin (Kerala), Talcher (Orissa), Mandi-Govindgarh (Punjab), Najafgarh Drain Basin (Delhi), Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), Industrial complex in Pune, prevalence of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary silicosis in quarry workers around Delhi, pilot study on the severity and prevalence of plumbism in different population groups in Delhi and respiratory morbidity due to air pollution in Delhi. The pilot study on the severity and prevalence of plumbism in different children population in Delhi revealed, inter alia, that significant number of children had lead blood levels more than 10 microgram per decilitre (WHO limit). Despite high bloods lead levels, the clinical symptoms were non-specific. The study on an epidemiological investigation on respiratory morbidity due to air pollution in Delhi has observed that a significant greater proportion of impact observed in older age group than younger ones. The lung function test in the study suggests some association of impairment of lung functions and pollution levels. Chronic symptoms and diseases were substantially greater in slums/low income groups. The study on environmental epidemiological studies at Angul-Talcher area observed that problems related to skin and teeth were significantly higher in almost all exposed village population which could be attributable to the fluoride pollution. Other areas having high pollution load are being taken up for environmental epidemiological studies.

Index

Committee on Environment and Health

A Committee on 'Environment and Health' was constituted by the Ministry under the Chairmanship of Dr. P.K. Seth, Director, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow. The Committee has met thrice. The report is being finalized.

Index

Environmental Statement (As part of Environmental Audit)

Submission of an environmental statement by polluting units seeking consent either under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 or the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 or both and the authorization under the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989 to the concerned State Pollution Control Boards has been made mandatory through a Gazette Notification issued under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. The Environmental Statement enables units to take a comprehensive look at their industrial operations and facilitates understanding of material flows and focus on areas where waste reduction and consequently savings in input costs is possible. Activities undertaken during the year are as follows:

Index

Status of Pollution Control in 17 Categories of Identified Highly Polluting Industries

Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has identified 1551 large and medium industries in 17 categories of highly polluting industries which are contributing maximum to the pollution load. They have been given time schedule so install necessary pollution control equipment to comply with the prescribed standards. The progress of compliance is monitored periodically and quarterly reports are given by CPCB based on the in-puts received from the concerned State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs). As on 31.12.99, out of 1551 industries, 1284 have so far provided the necessary pollution control facilities, 153 industries have been closed down and the remaining 114 industries are defaulting. For all the defaulting units, legal action has been taken under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and in many cases the matter is pending with Hon’ble Supreme Court. Almost all the defaulting units are either in the advanced stages of installing the pollution control measures or under action for their default. A state-wise summary status of the pollution control in 17 categories of industries and a category-wise summary status are given in Tables - 7 and 8 respectively.

Table-7

State-wise Summary Status of the Pollution Control in 17 Categories of Industries

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sl. No.	State/UT		Total No. 	Status (No. of units)
				of units	Closed	C#	Defaulters ##	
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1	Andhra Pradesh		173		29	142	2	
2	Arunchal Pradesh	00		0	0	0	
3	Assam			15		02	11	2	
4	Bihar			62		17	35	10	
5	Goa			6		0	6	0	
6	Gujarat			177		4	167	6	
7	Haryana			43		3	34	6	
8	Himachal Pradesh	9		0	9	0	
9	Jammu & Kashmir		8		3	1	4	
10	Karnataka		85		9	68	8	
11	Kerala			28		6	20	2	
12	Madhya Pradesh		78		6	59	13	
13	Maharashtra		335		22	296	17	
14	Manipur			0		0	0	0	
15	Meghalaya		1		0	0	1	
16	Mizoram			0		0	0	0	
17	Nagaland 		0		0	0	0	
18	Orissa			23		1	15	7	
19	Punjab			45		5	33	7	
20	Rajasthan		49		6	42	1	
21	Sikkim			1		0	0	1	
22	Tamil Nadu		119		2	116	1	
23	Tripura			0		0	0	0	
24	UT-Andaman & Nicobar	0		0	0	0	
25	UT-Chandigarh		1		0	1	0	
26	UT-Daman & Diu, 
	Dadra & Nagar Haveli	0		0	0	0	
27	UT-Delhi		5		0	3	2	
28	UT-Lakshadweep		0		0	0	0
29	UT-Pondicherry		6		1	4	1	
30	Uttar Pradesh		224		21	189	14	
31	West Bengal		58		16	33	9	
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
	Total			1551	153	1284	114	
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	Having adequate facilities to comply with the standards
##	Not having adequate facilities to comply with the standards

Table-8

Category-wise Summary Status of the Pollution Control in 17 Categories of Industries

(as on 31.12.1999)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
	Sl. No.	Category	Total No. 	Status (No. of units)	
				of Units	Closed		C#	Defaulters	
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
	1	Aluminium	7		1		6	0
	2	Caustic		25		0		25	0
	3	Cement		116		8		104	4
	4	Copper		2		0		0	2
	5	Distillery	177		27		123	27
	6	Dyes & D.I.	64		6		56	2
	7	Fertilizer	110		10		97	3
	8	Iron & Steel	8		0		2	6
	9	Leather		70		11		59	0
	10	Pesticide	71		6		63	2
	11	Petrochem	49		0		49	0
	12	Pharma		251		26		224	1
	13	Pulp & Paper	96		19		71	6
	14	Refinery	12		0		12	0
	15	Sugar		392		37		317	38
	16	TPP		97		2		72	23
	17	Zinc		4		0		4	0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
		Total		1551		153		1284	114
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#	Having adequate facilities to comply with the standards.

CPCB/SPCBs/ Pollution Control Committee (PCCs) have been requested for updating the inventory of industries in the 17 categories of highly polluting industries to monitor their effluent and emission discharges on a regular basis.

Ministry has now started taking sectoral approach for prevention and control of pollution in different sectors. In this regard, meetings under the chairmanship of Secretary (E&F) with different organisations, SPCBs, industry associations, experts etc. in the sector of tanneries and distilleries have been held. Based on the discussions, an action plan is being evolved in each category for control of pollution. Action Plan being finalized by a Working Group constituted for the purpose would be discussed and implemented through the State Pollution Control Boards with financial support from other organizations.

Index

Development of Environmental Standards

The Ministry lays-down industry specific as well as general effluent and emission standards for different categories of industries under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. During the year, standards for following categories of industries have been finalized and notified in the Official Gazette:-

Index

Recognition of Environmental Laboratories under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986

Under Section 12 and 13 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, the Ministry recognizes environmental laboratories and the Government Analysts working in the laboratories to carry out the functions entrusted to them under the Act. While powers for Recognising environment laboratories of the Government and autonomous organisations have been delegated to the CPCB, laboratories in the Private Sector are recognised by the Ministry. Ministry also participates in the joint inspection of environmental laboratories with CPCB and State Pollution Control Board and Pollution Control Committees. During the year based on the examination and recommendation of the inspection report of joint visits, four private laboratories have been recognised.

All recognised laboratories have to participate in the annual Analytical Quality Control (AQC) exercise being conducted by CPCB. Dummy Samples are sent to recognised laboratories and the results given are compared with the standard results of the same and variations, if any, is reported to the laboratory for implementation.

Index

Industrial Pollution Complaints

During the year, Ministry received more than 500 complaints from various individuals/organization/NGOs etc. regarding pollution being caused by certain industries. These complaints were attended to by calling reports along with the exact status and comments from State Pollution Control Boards. The complaints were mostly related to pollution being caused in air, water, land and noise resulting in degradation of eco-system. Some of the complaints were also related to discharge of untreated or partly treated effluent thereby contaminating water bodies, lands and ground water. Air pollution complaints were also received for certain cement, thermal power plants and brick kiln units. Action as required based on the reports of the Pollution Control Boards have been taken and the industries were directed to provide the necessary pollution control measures.

Index

Environmental Statistics and Mapping

Under the scheme during the year, the project on preparation of environmental atlas for metro cities and other major cities in the country has been completed through the CPCB. In this atlas, the pollution data relating to air, water, soil and noise along with their trends has been depicted in the form of maps.

The project viz. "Integrated Coastal Management Plan in the region between Visakhapatnam and Kakinada" sponsored earlier to EPTRI, Hyderabad is being completed. Another project on ‘Geo-chemical baseline mapping for environmental management in the Cauvery Basin’ has been sponsored to NGRI, Hyderabad during the year.

Under "Environmental Statistics and Mapping in Delhi", a project on application of Spatial Technologies has been sponsored to the National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies, New Delhi.

Index

Noise Pollution

The draft notification on Noise Pollution (Control and Regulation), published during 1st July, 1999 has been duly revised in consultation with the technical committees on the basis of the objections received and has been formally issued on 14th February 2000. The notification will help to implement the Ambient Air Quality Standards in respect of noise.

Noise standard for stationary diesel generator sets (15-500 KVA) notified during January, 1999 are being implemented.

Standards for bursting crackers have been issued in October, 1999. This has helped to restrict the use of crackers in the metro cities like Calcutta, Mumbai, Delhi, etc. The survey conducted by Central Pollution Control Board in coordination with Delhi Pollution Control Committee indicates that restriction of bursting of crackers in Delhi has reduced the air and noise pollution in the city during the last two years. The incidence of fire burnt cases during the festival season has also come down drastically. It has been decided that such studies will be conducted in the other major cities also.

Source specific standards for portable generator sets have been evolved and noise standard for automobiles have been revised. Besides, standards evolved for noise limits in cinema halls are also being notified.

Index

Programme/Action Plans for the Abatement of Pollution

The Programme for control of pollution in the country has been evolved and is in the process of finalization. This action plan envisages control of pollution from various sources such as industrial, domestic, vehicular, agricultural and noise. It also stipulates implementation of time bound programmes entailing coordinated inter-departmental strategies to save environmental degradation and resource conservation.

The Action Plan to control pollution for Mumbai metropolitan has been prepared and is being implemented by the Government of Maharashtra with the help of their agencies and action plan to control pollution in Chennai has been prepared. The Government of West Bengal intends to implement the action plan for the metropolitan region of Calcutta prepared under the World Bank Programme. In addition, draft action plan for Guwahati has been prepared and action plan for Hyderabad and Vizag are in progress.

Environmental Action Plan for control of pollution at religious places in the country has also been prepared. A time-bound programme to control pollution from various sources is evolved, which shall be implemented by local authorities entailing coordinated inter-departmental efforts.

Index

Zoning Atlas for siting of Industries

The programme on Zoning Atlas for siting of industries under the Environment Management Capacity Building Technical Assistance Project of the World Bank which is being implemented by the CPCB covers the following components:

The details of various activities undertaken during the year include the following:

Index

Training Programmes Conducted

Index

Industrial Estate Planning

During the year, the Industrial Estate Planning Studies have been extended to one site each in 15 States. Work completed for preparation of base maps, drainage and water shed maps, village location map, slope map and environment related maps for 9 sites. Data collection and preparation of various thematic maps by SPCBs/Executing agencies is in progress for all the study areas except for the site in Tripura State.

Index

Mapping of Environmentally Sensitive Zone - State-wise

Final printing of Maps were completed for three State viz. Goa, Kerala and Meghalaya. The printing and publication of maps have also been completed for the State of J&K, Orissa, AP, Assam, Gujarat and Karnataka. The work relating to States of Maharashtra, Manipur, MP, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, UP and West Bengal is in progress.

Index

Environmental Planning of Urban and Problem Areas

Index

Special Projects

Following special projects were also taken up during the year.

Index

Pollution control in grossly polluting industries discharging their effluent directly into the rivers and lakes

As per the decision of National River Conservation Authority, the CPCB has directed the SPCBs/PCCs to ensure that the polluting industries install requisite pollution control systems within the specified time-frame. The SPCBs/PCCs were also directed to issue closure orders to those industries, which do not take necessary action within the stipulated time period. As reported by CPCB, as on 30.9.99, 476 industries have installed the pollution control systems to comply with prescribed standards, 130 industries have been closed and 245 industries have to install the necessary pollution control systems to comply with the standards as suggested by the Ministry. CPCB had taken meeting with the representatives of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh (which have the maximum number of defaulters) to draw specific strategy with a time-bound action plan to reduce the number of defaulters and to ensure that the defaulting industries install the necessary pollution control systems within the prescribed time limit. A summary status of the pollution control of grossly polluting industries is given in Table-9.

Table-9

Summary Status of Pollution Control in Grossly polluting industries discharging their effluents into Rivers and Lakes

											(as on 30.09.1999)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sl. No.	Name of the 	No. of defaulters	No. of complying	No. of industries	No. of 
	No. of State/UT	as on August‘97		industries after	closed			defaulters
						issuance of directions
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1	Andhra Pradesh		60			20			10		30
2	Assam			7			0			4		3
3	Bihar			14			10			4		0
4	Gujarat			17			13			3		1
5	Haryana			21			7			5		9
6	Karnataka		20			14			0		6
7	Kerala			36			32			4		0
8	Madhya Pradesh		2			0			0		2
9	Maharashtra		6			1			3		2
10	Orissa			9			3			1		5
11	Pondicherry		4			1			0		3
12	Punjab			18			4			2		12
13	Tamil Nadu		366			242			44		80
14	Uttar Pradesh		241			120			43		78
15	West Bengal		30			9			7		14
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
	Total			851			476			130		245
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Index

Control of Vehicular Pollution

The Ministry for control of vehicular pollution, plays a coordinating role with the concerned Ministries and its associated bodies/organization including the Ministry of Surface Transport, the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas and the Ministry of Industry for upgradation of automobile technology, improvement in fuel quality, expansion of urban public transport systems and promotion of integrated traffic management as the vehicular emissions is the major cause of deterioration of urban ambient air quality.

The Ministry of Surface Transport (MoST), vide GSR 399 (E) dated 1.6.1999 has notified rules relating to the registration of non-commercial four-wheeled petrol and diesel driven vehicles in the National Capital Region to confirm India-2000 emission standards akin to Euro-I emission standards effective on and from 1.6.99 as these standards are effective from 1.4.2000 in the entire country for all types of vehicles. In consultation with this Ministry, the MoST vide GSR 77(E) dated 31.1.2000 has also notified more stringent emission standards known as Bharat Stage-II similar to Euro-II emission standards for registration of Motor cars and Four-wheeler Passenger Vehicles with Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) equal or less than 3500 Kg, which shall confirm to Euro-II emission norms by 1.4.2000 in the National Capital Region.

The Ministry of Surface Transport has also constituted a committee, vide its order dated 19.1.2000, to work out the phased time table for introduction of fuel with 0.05% sulphur content maximum throughout the country to enable to stipulate the Bharat-II emission standards for registration of new vehicles throughout the country.

The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas has the phased programme of introduction of unleaded petrol, low sulphur diesel (0.25% & 0.05% sulphur) as per the plans implemented/under implementation as mentioned below.

Only unleaded petrol is supplied in all retail outlets of the entire country with effect from 1.2.2000. 0.25% sulphur in diesel is supplied in the entire country from 1.1.2000.

Table-10

Plans for supply of 0.05% sulphur in diesel in the country

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Phase	Date		Area of Supply
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I	01.04.2000	At select retail outlets for new private (non-commercial) vehicles confirming to Euro-II norms 
			registered in NCR.
II.	01.10.2000	Mumbai for all categories of diesel vehicles.
III	01.04.2001	NCT and Taj Trapezium for all categories of diesel vehicles.
IV	01.10.2002	National Capital Region, Chennai and Calcutta for all categories of diesel vehicles.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Plans for supply of 0.05% sulphur in diesel in the country is as per the phases shown in Table-10.

The reports submitted by the Environment (Pollution & Prevention) Control Authority for National Capital Region prominently include the steps taken and monitoring made by the Authority to control vehicular pollution. The Authority has also made a special emphasis in expediting expansion of CNG outlets in Delhi and conversion of city buses into CNG mode by involving multi department of the Government and its agencies, organisations for streamlining and reducing the procedural delays for taking action plan for conversion of public transport on CNG mode in Delhi. The authority is monitoring phasing out of old commercial vehicles (15 years and above) in Delhi.

The Authority has issued advertisements in the national newspapers to invite the public views on the priority it attached to measures for the control and abatement of vehicular pollution in Delhi. 7450 persons responded to the advertisement and a good number of them with their independent suggestions. The Authority analyzed the responses received and it revealed that 95% of the responses were in favour of removal of encroachments from footpaths, and 93% of creating no traffic zones and pedestrianizing shopping areas. As many as 82% responses approved of phasing out of 15 year old vehicles from the road, and 60% of raising of parking fees to discourage the use of cars in congested areas.

Index

Notification on Uniform Consent Procedure to be followed by State Pollution Control Boards and Pollution Control Committees

A Notification containing the Draft Rules to provide for uniform consent procedure to be followed by the SPCBs and PCCs has been prepared and notified on 20-12-99 under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

The objective of the notification is to bring out rationalization in the consent management practices being followed by the Pollution Control Boards in the States and Union Territories for the purpose of Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 and Authorization under the Hazardous Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989. The main features of the notification are:

Index

Customs and Excise Duty Reduction for Pollution Control Equipments

Under the notification of the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Environment and Forests issues certificates for reduction of rates on customs duty and excise duty to the industries/users for a list of pollution control equipments. During the year, 40 pollution control projects have been recommended for issuance of concessional excise duty certificates for the relevant items requested for and covered in the Notification. Nineteen applications have been recommended for issuance of concessional customs duty certificates for the items CNG kits and parts thereof.

In case of new equipment for consideration of customs duty/excise duty exemption not covered under the notification, representations are forwarded to the Ministry of Finance for consideration.

Index

Common Effluent Treatment Plants

A scheme on setting up of Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) in cluster of small-scale industries had been undertaken in the country under a World Bank Scheme on Industrial Pollution Control. Under this scheme, a subsidy of 25% of the total cost of project from the Central Government and 25% subsidy from the State Government was provided. 30% was met through the financial institutions as loan and the balance 20% is met by contributions of the members of the CETPs. Small-scale industries discharging wastewater have been encouraged to subscribe to CETPs. So far, 88 CETPs have been approved for providing financial assistance. The details of CETPs sanctioned are given in Table-11.

Table-11

Status of CETPs

----------------------------------------------------------------------
Sl. No.	Name of the State/UT	GOI subsidy disbursed	  No. of CETPs
				so far (Rs. in lakhs)
----------------------------------------------------------------------
1	Andhra Pradesh			132			3
2	Delhi				2300			15
3	Gujarat				735.42			7
4	Himachal Pradesh		12.6			4
5	Haryana				11.89			1
6	Karnataka			98.84			3
7	Madhya Pradesh			96			3
8	Maharashtra			267.435			8
9	Punjab				19.95			4
10	Rajasthan			100			2
11	Tamil Nadu			1934.08			36
12	Uttar Pradesh			95.75			2
----------------------------------------------------------------------
	Total				5803.89			88
----------------------------------------------------------------------

Index

Central Pollution Control Board

The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), an autonomous body of the Ministry was set up in September 1974, under the provisions of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. It coordinates the activities of the State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) and Pollution Control Committees (PCCs), and also advises the Central Government on all matters concerning the Prevention and Control of environmental pollution, CPCB, SPCBs and PCCs are responsible for implementing the legislations relating to prevention and control of pollution. They also develop rules and regulations, which prescribe the standards for emissions and effluent of air and water pollutants and noise levels. CPCB also provides technical services to the Ministry for implementing the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

During the year the CPCB continued its activities in assessment of pollution in different areas, strengthen monitoring mechanism for assisting environmental quality and taking steps for prevention and control of pollution from different sources through coordinated programmes with SPCBs and PCCs. In addition, thrust is also given to undertake interaction with voluntary and non-government organisations for appropriate participation and wide dissemination of information amongst public.

Major steps were also taken to nation-wide pollution prevention plan, particularly with reference to combating vehicular pollution, pollution control in 17 categories of highly polluting industries, implementation of action plans for restoration of environmental quality in critically polluted areas, noise pollution control and proper management of solid wastes, hazardous wastes and bio-medical wastes.

High lights of some of the major activities of CPCB during the year are as follows:

Index

Inland Water Quality Monitoring

Monitoring of water resources in the country is one of the important activities of CPCB. Monitoring results help in identification of nature and extent of pollution and its control. It also helps in prioritization of pollution control activities, formulation of standards, assessment of adequacy and effectiveness of various pollution control programmes.

The Central Pollution Control Board has been monitoring water quality of national aquatic resources in collaboration with concerned State Pollution Control Boards at 507 locations, out of which 430 stations are under MINARS (Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic Resources), 50 stations are under GEMS (Global Environmental Monitoring Systems) and 27 stations are under YAP (Yamuna Action Plan) programmes. Out of 507 stations, 414 stations are on rivers, 25 on ground water, 38 on lakes and 30 on canals, creeks, drains and ponds etc.

Studies carried out by CPCB also reveal that the municipal corporations at large have inadequate resources for ever-increasing the load of municipal sewage. A large part of the municipal sewage is still flowing into the aquatic environment without any treatment, thereby increasing the oxygen demand in shrinking water bodies and increasing the bacterial load of water, the main cause of water borne diseases.

According to the studies on water quality status it has been revealed that Yamuna river is most polluted river in the country having high BOD and coliform in the stretch of about 500 km, between Delhi and Etawah. Other severely polluted rivers are Sabarmati at Ahmedabad, Gomti at Lucknow, Kali, Adyar, Cocum (entire stretches), Veghal at Madurai, Musi d/s Hyderabad. Similarly river stretches of Ganga, d/s of Kanauj, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi and Trighat; Godavari, d/s of Nasik, Nanded and Rajamundary; Cauvery, d/s of Srirangapatna KRS Dam, Satyamangalam Bridge; Krishna between Mahabaleshwar and Sangli; Tapi between Nepanagar and Baranpur; Mahanadi d/s of Cuttack, Mahi between Badanvar and Vasad, Brahamani d/s of Rourkela, Talcher and Dharamshala, also remained with high BOD and coliform for a considerable time during 1998-99. Index

Biological Monitoring Water Quality

Realising the importance and advantage of biological monitoring. CPCB has initiated biological monitoring of water quality using the methodology developed under Indo-Dutch Programme. Initiated in 98-99, the CPCB continued its biomonitoring at limited water quality monitoring stations in collaboration with concerned State Pollution Control Boards during the year. The Yamuna river basin is also studied for its biological composition. A biological map was prepared for the river and its tributaries.

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Water Quality Profiles of Major Rivers

Ghaggar River

The Pollution in river Ghaggar and the resultant epidemic situation in Hanumangarh, Rajasthan and foot mouth disease in Sirsa, Haryana is a matter of serious concern for the states falling in the catchment of this river. The Central Pollution Control Board in collaboration with concerned State Pollution Control Boards carried out a detailed investigation on the polluting sources in respective states. The defaulters have been identified. Appropriate actions have been initiated on defaulting units.

Yamuna River

There has been regular complaints from Delhi Jal Board and Agra Jal Sansthan regarding bad raw water quality in the Yamuna river. The sources of pollution in this region in industrial and municipal wastewater from Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh. There are several petitions in the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India and Delhi High Court on the issue. The CPCB is regularly monitoring the situation and interacting with the concerned authorities. It has formulated a comprehensive action plan to restore the Yamuna river water quality. The progress of implementation of the action plan is being regularly reported to the Hon’ble Courts. A regular monitoring of water quality and pollution loads from important out-fall is being carried out and reported to the Hon’ble Supreme Court.

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Review of water quality criteria and zoning and classification of water bodies

If a water body is used for more than one use than the use, which demands highest quality of, water is termed as "Designated Best Use" and accordingly the water body or its part is designated. Designated best uses of all the important water bodies in the country have been defined. In course of time, human activities are intensified and thus, nature and magnitude of water quality problems have changed significantly. Therefore, CPCB initiated a review of the system in collaboration with concerned SPCBs and experts in the field. The exercise will be completed soon and the review result will be utilized in rational planning and implementing the pollution control efforts.

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Non-point source of pollution

Looking at the importance of non-point sources of pollution, CPCB initiated a study to assess pollution from non-point source. Water samples were collected from different land uses at random in Delhi and its surroundings. The project is continued to generate more data and to cover different land uses for assessment of contribution from non-point sources.

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PCBs Analysis in Yamuna Water and Sediment

To assess the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in Yamuna water and sediment and in the major drains joining Yamuna, a study was conducted in May, 1999. For the determination of PCB concentration, the samples were collected from five different locations in Delhi to Palwal stretch of Yamuna and from five major drains joining Yamuna. Minimum and maximum level of PCB in water samples were found at old Yamuna Bridge and at Okhla, i.e. 0.190 and 1.926 nanogram per litre respectively. In sediment samples minimum and maximum levels of PCBs were observed at Palwal (0.616 nanogram per gram) and at Palla (8.927 nanogram per gram) respectively. Among the drains, highest concentration of PCB in sediment was 281.397 nanogram per gram (PowerHouse Drain), while the highest concentration in wastewater was found in Civil Mill Drain, the value being 6.545 nanogram per gram. The results indicate that after mixing of Civil Mills Drain and Power House Drain with river Yamuna, the PCB level in river water increased from 0.190 nanogram to 1.926 nanogram per litre, indicating that PCBs are contributed by the drains along with wastewater. The US Environment Protection Agency has recommended the criterial limit of 14.0 nanogram per litre for fresh water. The analysis results indicate that PCBs level at all the locations of river Yamuna as well as in drains are well within the limits.

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Pollution in Coastal Waters

The main cause of pollution of coastal waters of seas around the country is primarily due to the disposal of untreated domestic wastes. In this connection, the CPCB has directed all the SPCBs, and PCCs to issue show cause notices to the defaulting municipalities/civil authorities/industries or any such activities/processes if any responsible for discharge of untreated sewage/ effluent in to the coastal stretches and directed them for taking remedial measures in the matter. Further, under National River Action Plan, the Central and State Pollution Control Boards have identified 26 coastal river stretches in the medium and minor rivers and their tributaries in the peninsular region for assessment of pollution load for restoration of the water quality as required for their designated best used.

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Ambient Air Quality

One of the function of CPCB to fulfil the objectives of Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, is to assess the ambient air quality in the country to identify the nature and extent of air pollution problems in the country and areas in need of restoration and their prioritization.

CPCB has established a National Network of 290 monitoring stations spread over 92 cities/ towns in the country. The programme was initiated since 1984. The results of such monitoring are published as annual air quality statistics. The criteria pollutants like SO2, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) are being monitored along with meteorological parameters like wind speed, wind direction, temperature and relative humidity. The sampling is done twice in a week for 24 hours. The SPM is measured every eight hours whereas the gaseous pollutants are measured every four hours. The monitoring is done by the respective State Pollution Control Boards, except in few towns where CPCB has its own office and monitoring station. The results obtained under this programme indicate that ambient air quality is general within the prescribed standards except in some industrial towns of Gujarat and Maharashtra.

The CPCB also monitors ambient air quality in 10 metro-cities for additional parameters like ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, respirable suspended particulate matter, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon through National Environmental Engineering Research Institute. The cities are Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Cochin, Kanpur and Nagpur. The results of such monitoring are used for rational planning of pollution control strategies for these cities.

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World Bank assisted Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

World Bank in its strengthening of monitoring capabilities programme, has identified strengthening of ambient air quality monitoring of CPCB. Recently the Govt. has notified standards for Respirable Dust Particle (PM10) in the air. The World Bank has agreed to provide Respirable Dust Samplers (RDS) initially for 28 large cities in the country under the "National Environmental Management Capacity Building Project". This will enable the State Boards not only to acquire ambient air quality data with respect to PM10 but also other parameters like carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and other gases which are informative parameters.

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Air Quality Monitoring at Traffic Intersections of Delhi

Air quality monitoring conducted at various traffic intersections in Delhi reveals the following:

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Survey of Pollution Checking Centres in Delhi

Experts from CPCB and the State Transport Department inspected twenty-one vehicle-checking centres in May-June, 1999, to check the operation, maintenance and calibration of instruments. The report states that at some centres, operators were not fully conversant with the operation of the instruments. Most of the instruments were exposed to dirt and heat, thus affecting the performance of instruments.

CPCB recommended that the staff of the pollution checking centres need proper training, gas calibration metres should be checked regularly, sampling probe should be regularly cleared with petrol and compressed gas after each monitoring.

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Benzene Monitoring in Delhi

CPCB has been monitoring benzene concentration at seven locations comprising residential, industrial and commercial areas since May, 1999. The maximum benzene concentration has been observed at ITO Bridge with the average monthly value varying between 20-38 micrograms per cubic metre during May - September, 1999. The monthly average values recorded at other stations during the monitoring period varied from 13 to 26 micrograms per cubic metre.

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Fig 60. CO at ITO during Deepawali, 1999

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Fig 61. Ambient noise level at various places in Delhi, 1999

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Vehicular Monitoring in Delhi

Vehicular emission monitoring of 712 petrol driven vehicles comprising 400 two-wheelers, 246 four-wheelers and 66 three-wheelers was conducted during May-June, 1999. Out of the 400 two-wheelers monitoring 89.5% were meeting the prescribed CO standards of 4.5%. 95 per cent of the three wheelers complied with the standards while 85% of the four-wheelers complied with the CO standard of 3%. The vehicles registered during 1998-99 have higher rate of compliance than the earlier ones. Details are given in Table-12.

Table-12

Different Categories of Petrol Driven Vehicles Monitored and Percentage meeting CO standard

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Sl. No.	Category of vehicles	No. of vehicles No. of vehicles 	%age of vehicles 
				monitored	meeting CO standards	meeting CO standard
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1	Two Wheelers		400		358			89.5
2	Three Wheelers		66		63			95.45
3	Four Wheelers		246		213			86.58
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	Total			712		634			89.05
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Pollution Control Enforcement

Sugar and Distillery Units

The following sugar mills and distillery units have been issued closure directions for compliance in a time-bound manner:

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Thermal Power Plant

Directions under Section 5 of EPA, 1986 were issued to Bokaro Thermal Power Plant (A&B), Chandrapura, Thermal Power Plant of DVC and Korba (East). The directions issued for complying with environmental standards and installation of ESPs. Further, all 77, Thermal Power Plants have been asked to submit an action plan as per notification on use of beneficiated coal with effect from June 2001.

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Iron and Steel Industry

A National Task Force for implementation of environmental standards in integrated Iron and Steel industries has been constituted. Task Force visited Bokaro Steel Plant during the year for assessment of pollution control measures implemented by the SAIL till now.

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Pollution Control in Problem Areas

Twenty-four problem areas have been identified in the country for pollution control through concerted efforts involving all the concerned agencies/industries. Action plans have been prepared and being implemented in respect of 23 of these areas. Finalization of such plan is under process in respect of the remaining area. A summary of the status on the progress made in preparation and implementation of action plan in these areas is provided in Table-13.

Table-13

Status of action on the Identified Problems Areas

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S.No.	Name			State/UT	Survey Conducted	Action Plan	
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1	Bhadravati		Karnataka	Yes			Under Implementation	
2	Chembur			Maharashtra	Yes			Under Implementation	
3	Digboi			Assam		Yes			Under Implementation	
4	Dhanbad			Bihar		Yes			Under Implementation	
5	Durgapur		W.B.		Yes			Under Finalization	
6	Govindgarh		Punjab		Yes			Under Implementation	
7	Greater Cochin		Kerala		Yes			Under Implementation	
8	Howrah			W.B.		Yes			Under Finalization	
9	Jodhpur			Rajasthan	Yes			Under Implementation	
10	Kala-Amb		H.P.		Yes			Under Implementation	
11	Korba			M.P.		Yes			Under implementation	
12	Manali			T.N.		Yes			Under Implementation	
13	Nagda-Ratlam		M.P.		Yes			Under Implementation	
14	Najafgarh Drain Basin	Delhi		Yes			Under Finalization	
15	North Arcot		T.N.		Yes			Under Implementation	
16	Pali			Rajasthan	Yes			Under Implementation	
17	Parwanoo		H.P.		Yes			Under Implementation	
18	Patancheru-Bollaram	A.P.		Yes			Under Implementation	
19	Singrauli		U.P.		Yes			Under Implementation	
20	Talcher			Orissa		Yes			Under Implementation	
21	Vapi			Gujarat		Yes			Under Implementation	
22	Vishakhapatnam		A.P.		Yes			Under Implementation	
23	Tarapur			Maharashtra	Yes			Under Implementation	
24	Ankleshwar		Gujarat		Yes			Under Implementation	
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Ankleshwar, Govindgarh, Greater Cochin, Kala-Akb, Korba, Pali, Parwanoo, Patancherru-Bollaram, Singrauli, Tarapur and Jodhpur were also visited by the CPCB teams for an on-the-spot assessment of the implementation status of the action plans and follow-ups including actions under Section 5 of the E(P) Act, 1986 were taken against the defaulting industries.

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Ecomark Scheme

In the light of Agenda 21, and in the aftermath of the Rio Conference, both national governments and international organisations have attempted to find ways of helping households and individuals to make environmentally-sound purchasing decisions. In India the label known as ‘Ecomark’ which is awarded to consumer goods meeting the specified environmental criteria and the quality equipments of Indian standards. Since 1991, Ecomark criteria for 16 product categories covering approximately 450 products have been finalised and notified.

During the year, the Ecomark license was granted to M/s Madhya Bharat Paper Limited, Bilaspur, M.P., for manufacturing Writing and Printing papers as per IS 1848: 1991 for the following types of paper.

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Life-cycle analysis studies for detergents

CPCB sponsored this project to Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow. A special working group was constituted to guide/assist ITRC in completing the task successfully. The final report has given the suggestions for enhancing the eco-friendliness of detergents at all the stages of its life cycle.

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Accreditation of CPCB laboratories for product testing

The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has decided to adopt and implement international guidelines of Laboratory Quality Management System (ISO/IEC-guide 25) and get its laboratories accredited by the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL). The scope of accreditation has been defined and CPCB laboratories will be accredited for more than 100 Chemical and Biological parameters of water and wastewater including coastal water, air and hazardous waste samples. About 13 awareness programmes on laboratory accreditation have been conducted for laboratory staff at Head Quarters and Zonal Offices. The draft quality manuals, operational procedures and test procedures are being prepared.

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Environmental Management Standards (ISO 14000 series documents)

India being a member body receives draft ISO standards, from the ISO Secretariat through Bureau of Standards (BIS). These documents are forwarded to the Central Board for review and comments. The Chairman of CPCB is the Chairman of BIS Sectional Committee dealing with the review of ISO 14000 series standards for adoption by ISO. The Central Board suggested comments/views on the draft standards received during the year for further consideration by BIS and ISO Secretariat.

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Hazardous Waste Management

Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has sponsored a project on "Inventorisation and Management of Hazardous Waste Generation in various States". The objective of the study was to identify potential hazardous waste generating industries and waste category-wise quantification of hazardous waste generation, and to evaluate present method of hazardous waste management practices adopted by industrial units.

The study in the State of Maharashtra, Bihar and Tamil Nadu are in final stages of completion. The inventory report for the State of Gujarat, Jammu Province. Punjab, Kerala and Orissa has been completed. The Reports for the State of Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Union Territory of Pondicherry, Chandigarh, Daman, Diu and Dadra Nagar Haveli and National Capital Region (Noida, Ghaziabad, Meerut and Faridabad except Delhi) are in the process of completion. Identification of hazardous waste generating industries, quantification of hazardous waste generated and approximate estimate of waste suitable for land disposal and incineration for some of the States is given in Fig 62. During the study, waste generation factors have also been arrived at for some of the important industrial sectors for assessment of hazardous waste generation.

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Fig 62. Quantity of Hazardous wastes generated in various states

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Public Interest Litigations

The CPCB has been regularly carrying out inspections in compliance with the orders of Hon’ble Supreme Court and High Courts in various matters like i) Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in Delhi, ii) Implementation of Yamuna Action Plan and control of industrial pollution in the Yamuna river, iii) Development of green belt around the Taj Mahal in Agra, iv) Drinking water quality in Delhi.

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Hazardous Substances Management

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Fig 63. “Hazardous Waste Storage Pits” - Designed and approved by Punjab Pollution Control Board.

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