2

SURVEY OF NATURAL RESOURCES

[Botanical Survey of India, Zoological Survey of India, Forest Survey of India]


Index


Survey of Flora

Botanical Survey of India (BSI)

Introduction

Established in 1890 the Botanical Survey of India with its Headquarter in Calcutta and nine Circle / Field Offices located throughout the country, is involved in exploring the plant wealth of the country and identifying the species having economic potentiality for the welfare of mankind. The objectives of the Botanical Survey of India are categorized as follows :

Index

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Fig 1. Vanda stangeana Reichbi f. - a rare ornamental orchid

Primary Objectives

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Fig 2. ‘Lady’s slipper’ (Paphiopedilum villosum (Lindl.) Stein)

Index

Secondary Objectives

The activities of the BSI during the year were as follows:

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Fig 3. Dendrobium nobile Lindley - an ornamental orchid and state flower of Sikkim

Index

Botanical Exploration and inventorisation of phytodiversity

About 30 exploration tours were undertaken by various circle offices and units of BSI in different priority areas, Hotspots, fragile ecosystems of North Eastern India, Andaman & Nicobar Islands / Sikkim, South Western Ghats and Western Himalayas including Ladhak, Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Garwhal Himalayas. A total of 6000 specimens have been collected, out of which 3100 specimens are identified and about 1550 have been inventorised by different circle offices / units of Botanical Survey of India.

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Fig 4. Paphiopedilum venustum (Wall.) Pfitz. - an ornamental orchid from North-East India

Index

Documentation of Phytodiversity

Flora of India

Final manuscript of 30 spp. of Amaryllidaceae and Hypoxidaceae, 8 spp. of Viscaceae and 34 spp. of Araceae and 5 spp. of Ischaemum have been completed.

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Fig 5. Goat’s Foot Glory Ipomoea pes-caprae acts as a sand binder on sandy shores

State Flora

Editing of the Flora of Nagaland (Vol III & IV) has been completed and the same for Cyperaceae family for Flora of Madhya Pradesh (Vol III) and Flora of Mizoram (Vol II) are being finalized. Checklist of Malvaceae and Tiliaceeae, key to the species of genus Berbaris and final manuscript of 47 species of Dicots for Flora of J &K have also been completed. Approximately 159 species have been studied and final manuscript of 45 (approx) have been completed for Flora of Govind Pashu Vihar National Park.

Final manuscript of 55 spp. (approx) for Flora of Sikkim and Flora of Pench National Park (Maharashtra) have also been completed during the year.

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Fig 6. Ascocentrum ampulaceum var auranticum - a rare and interesting orchid from Manipur

Conservation

Total five tours were undertaken and 200 spp. collected. Forty-four rare and wild relatives of ornamental plants and plants of economic value from wild were collected for conservation and multiplication in the Indian Botanic Garden. Population studies of 66 rare and threatened species have been analysed to determine the status of taxa as per IUCN categories. Ex-situ conservation of 153 rare and threatened spp. has been carried out by multiplication at different experimental gardens of Circles office of Botanical Survey of India.

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Fig 7. Hygrochilus parishii (Veitch & Rchb.f.) Pfitz. - a North Eastern Glory

Index

Cytological studies / Palynological studies / Botanical gallery / Plant physiology

Cytological studies have been carried out and chromosome number determined for 11 species of Acanthaceae and Papilionaceae. Palynological studies were conducted and phytographs of 9 species of Indigofera and 12 other plants were prepared. Reproductive capacity of 9 species of wetland species endemic to West Bengal were also determined.

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Fig 8. Hedge Glory (Ipomoea carnea), an Indian wild flower

Index

Bioprospective assessment of phytodiversity

Five collection tours have been undertaken and 1000 specimens of wild plants of economic and medicinal value were collected and information stored for about 380 species. Phytochemical screening of 14 species of mangrove plants in West Bengal and Orissa and that of 4 species of Menispermaceae have been completed. Chemical screening of the seeds of Grensiar arbiculate (Tiliaceae) were carried out. Isolation of flavenoids from Baubimia veriegata and B. racemosa completed. 95 museum materials were collected from different parts of Orissa, West Bengal and Andaman Nicobar Islands during the year.

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Fig 9. Dendrobium densiflorum Wall. ex Lindl - an ornamental spp.

Index

Herbarium and Library

Mounting, Stitching and label pasting of about 8000 specimens have been completed by different Circle offices / units of Botanical Survey of India. About 3000 specimens were identified and 4500 specimens accessioned. 1500 specimens were indexed and about 4000 specimens were incorporated in the herbarium of different circle offices. During the year 252 photographs and 50 illustrations were prepared and 350 books and journals were purchased by different circle offices.

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Fig 10. Coelogyne holochila Hunt - a rare spp. from North East

Index

Publications

Publications of BSI brought out during the year were as follows :

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Fig 11. Trudelia alpina (Lindl.) Garay - an orchid from North-Eastern India

Index

Other activities

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Fig 12. ‘Red vanda’. (Renanthera imschootiana Rolfe)

Index

Survey of Fauna

Zoological Survey of India (ZSI)

Introduction

The Zoological Survey of India, with its headquarter at Calcutta and sixteen Regional stations located in different parts of the country is involved in the exploration, studies and inventorisation of faunal resources of the country. During the year, it continued to persue these objectives with renewed thrust on biodiversity.

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Fig 13. Dendrobium primulinum Lindley - a rare orchid of North-East

Faunal explorations and research works undertaken were broadly under four major programmes a) Fauna of States, b) Fauna of Conservation areas and c) Fauna of Important Ecosystems and d) Ecological Studies.

Highlights of various activities undertaken by ZSI during the year are as follows :

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Fig 14. Calotes versicolor - Garden lizards

Index

Faunal Exploration and Surveys

Altogether 75 extensive faunistic surveys were undertaken covering seven States, 15 conservation areas and five ecosystems. Detailed taxonomic studies were carried out on the material collected during these as well as earlier surveys. Beside these, ecological studies including status survey of endangered animals were carried out under nine different projects.

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Fig 15. A Centipede from Melghat Tiger Reserve

Index

Ecosystem

Tropical Rainforest Ecosystem

Surveys were conducted in Palakkad district of Kerala for faunal resources.

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Fig 16. Polyacanthus fasciatus - One of the rare species of Gauramis of India

Wetland Ecosystem

Important wetlands surveyed during this year comprised of Jaikawadi and Nathsagar of Maharashtra and wetlands in Keoladeo Ghana National park of Rajasthan.

Estuarine Ecosystem

Estuaries of Hooghly Matla in West Bengal and Krishna in Andhra Pradesh were further surveyed.

Coastal and Marine Ecosystem

Faunal explorations were carried out in the coastal waters of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal.

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Fig 17. Papilio demoleus demoleus Linnasus - The Lime Butterfly from Sidhi District, M.P.

Index

Conservation Areas

National Parks

Faunal diversity surveys were carried out in Satpura (Madhya Pradesh), Pench and Tadoba (Maharashtra) National Parks.

Biosphere Reserves

Seven Islands of Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve were surveyed.

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Fig 18. Blue bell at Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary, Delhi

Wildlife Sanctuaries

Surveys were conducted in Wildlife Sanctuaries of Pachmarhi and Bori (Madhya Pradesh), Saipung (Meghalaya) and Biligiri Rangaswamy (Karnataka)

States and Union Territories

Under this programme surveys were conducted in Andhra Pradesh (Anantapur, Chittor, Cuddapah, Guntur, Krishna, East and West Godavari districts) Arunachal Pradesh (Dibang Valley), Assam (Goalpara), Gujarat (Kutch and Banaskantha), Karnataka (Dakshin Kannada, and Kodagu), Kerala (Kottyam), Maharashtra (Pune), Madhya Pradesh (Jabalpur, Mandla, Rajnandgaon and Sidhi), Nagaland (Dinapur and Kohima) and Uttar Pradesh (Azamgarh, Allahabad, Ballia, Bahraich, Gonda, Gorakhpur, Gazipur, Mirzapur and Sultanpur districts)

Ecological Surveys

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Fig 19. Lion-tailed Macaque - an endangered species

Index

Research Works

Identification of new Taxa

During the year detailed taxonomic studies resulted in the discovery of a total of 8 species of Insecta (4 of Diptera : Chloropidae, 2 of Hymenoptera : Torymidae and 2 of Hymenoptera : Pteromalidae).

Taxonomic Studies

The research works carried out on fauna collected from different States, conservation areas and other ecosystem are as follows :

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Fig 20. Sea-Snake resting in the rubble in the intertidal region of Andaman Islands

Fauna of States

Details of number of specimens and species identified, based on the collections made from different States are given in Table - 1

Table - 1

Groups of Animals Identified

(Total number of specimens and species in parenthesis)

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States surveyed		Protozoa	Bryozoa		Annelida	Apterygota	Odonata	Isoptera	Hemiptera	Hymenoptera	Lepidoptera	Coleoptera	Diptera
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Andhra Pradesh		49(12)		39(5)		33(5)		—		286(20)	40(14)		66(15)		66(15)		—		—		—
Arunachal Pradesh	—		—		—		—		—	—		—		—		20(4)		20(4)		15(3)
Gujarat			—		—		—		—		—	—		—		40(18)		—		—		—
Himachal Pradesh	—		—		—		—		—	—		—		—		—		—		—
Karnataka		—		—		—		—		—	—		—		—		—		—		70(12)
Madhya Pradesh		—		—		—		—		—	—		—		—		232(60)		—		—
Maharashtra		—		—		—		5(3)		—	—		4(2)		—		3(3)		—		—
Manipur			—		—		—		47(10)		—	—		20(6)		—		—		23(3)		—
Mizoram			—		—		—		93(13)		—	16(4)		350(38)		—		19(8)		—		—
Nagaland		50(35)		—		—		25(6)		—	5(2)		—		—		—		—		—
Rajasthan		—		—		—		—		—	83(4)		—		—		—		870(35)		—
Sikkim			—		—		—		29(9)		—	—		—		—		—		144(12)		—
Tamil Nadu		—		—		—		—		—	—		—		—		13(3)		—		—
Uttar Pradesh		—		15(1)		32(2)		—		—	—		—		—		—		—		—
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States surveyed		Orthoptera	Arachnida	Acarina		Crustacea	Chilopoda	Mollusca	Echinodermata	Pisces		Amphibia	Reptilia	Mammalia
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Andaman & Nicobar Is.	12(4)		—		—		—		—		—		25(5)		50(5)		—		—		—
Andhra Pradesh		—		—		—		—		—		221(35)		—		—		—		—		—
Arunachal Pradesh	—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Assam			—		—		—		—		—		205(3)		—		1268(80)	5(2)		—		—
Bihar			—		—		—		—		—		4371(15)	—		—		—		—
Goa			—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		47(3)		—		—
Himachal Pradesh	—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		2(2)
Karnataka		—		—		—		11(8)		—		—		—		3791(65)	23(5)		23(9)		—
Kerala			—		—		—		—		—		—		—		15(3)		—		—		—
Madhya Pradesh		—		—		165(8)		—		—		—		—		—		113(4)		40(3)		—
Maharashtra		—		9(2)		—		—		36(7)		26(9)		4(2)		—		—		—		—
Manipur			—		250(52)		—		—		—		—		20(6)		—		—		—		—
Mizoram			60(4)		—		35(8)		—		—		—		350(38)		125(25)		25(3)		—		—
Nagaland		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		84(20)		—		—		1(1)
Pondicherry		—		—		—		—		—		50(11)		—		—		—		—		—
Sikkim			—		—		95(12)		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Tamil Nadu		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		630(27)		—		—		—
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Index

Fauna of Conservation Area

National Parks

Tandoba National Park, Maharashtra : 27 examples belonging to 6 species of Crustacea and 13 examples pertaining to 10 species of Odonata were identified.

Pench National Park Maharashtra : 96 examples consisting of 5 species of Thysanoptera, 5 examples belonging to 4 species, of Arachnida, 4 examples pertaining to 3 species of Crustacea, 5 examples pertaining to 2 species of Reptilia and 1 example belonging to 1 species of Mammalia were identified.

Eraviculam National Park, Kerala : 25 examples consisting of 13 species of Lepidoptera, 25 examples belonging to 1 species of Mollusca, 7 examples of 4 species of Hymenoptera and 8 examples pertaining to 6 species of Reptilia were identified.

Index

Tiger Reserves

Melghat Tiger Reserve, Maharashtra : 2 examples (4 species) of Crustacea, 9 examples (5 species) of Arachnida, 24 examples (8 species ) of Lepidopetra, 18 examples (4 species) of Myriapoda, 18 examples (6 species) of Mollusca, 22 examples (12 species) of Odonata, 231 examples (16 species) of Pisces, 6 examples (3 species) of Amphibia were identified.

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Fig 21. Common Bathing Place for birds and animals

Index

Biosphere Reserves

Gulf of Mannar (Tamil Nadu) : 31 examples (8 species) of Crustacea and 289 examples (75 species ) of Pisces were identified.

Pachmarhi (Madhya Pradesh) : 64 examples pertaining to 8 species of Coleoptera were recognised.

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Fig 23. Lion in its habitat at Gir Forest

Index

Wildlife Sanctuaries

Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu :12 examples (6 species) of Reptiles, 599 examples (24 species) of Pisces and 107 examples (12 species) of Amphibia were determined.

Bhim Bandh Wildlife Sanctuary, Munger : 42 examples (9 species) of Lepidoptera, 45 examples (4) species of Pisces and 27 examples (2 species) of mammalia were determined.

Saipung Wildlife Sanctuary, Meghalaya : 123 examples (29 species) of Pisces and 44 examples 4 species of Amphibia were determined.

Annamalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu : 23 examples (5 species ) of Amphibia and 3 examples (3 species) of Reptiles were determined.

Bilgiri Rangaswami Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka : 7 examples (2 species) of Arachnids and 2127 examples (22) species of Pisces were determined.

Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala : 3 examples (3 species) of Reptiles and 23 examples (5) species of Amphibia were identified.

Index

Fauna of Ecosystems

Wetland

Nalsarovar, Gujarat : 3 examples (3 species) of Diptera and 3 examples (1 species) of Dermoptera were determined.

Nathsagar, Maharashtra : Qualitative analysis of a few samples of Plankton consisting mainly of Rotifera, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Copepoda were carried out.

Asan Reservoir, Dehra Dun : 326 examples (10 species) of Mollusca were studied and identified.

Keoladeo Ghana, Rajasthan : Odonata collections were sorted out for further study.

Tropical Rainforest Western Ghat Ecosystem : 68 examples (22 species) of Odonata, 160 examples (20 species) of Hymenoptera 90 examples (9 species) of Pisces, 68 examples (9 species) of Amphibia and 9 examples (7 species) of Reptilia were determined.

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Fig 22. Lobster - A highly priced foreign exchange earner, from Tuticorin waters, Tamil Nadu

Index

Estuarine Ecosystem

Krishna estuary, Andhra Pradesh : 149 examples (15 species ) of Polychaeta, 245 examples (30 species) of Crustacea, 399 examples (2 species) of Mollusca and 969 examples (70 species ) of Pisces were identified.

Coastal and marine ecosystem, Andhra Coast : 7 examples (2 species) of Polychaeta were determined.

West Bengal Coast : 7 examples of Platyhelminthis, 108 examples of Coelentrata, 112 examples of Polychacta, 204 examples of Mollusca, 2 examples of Echinodermata, 2 examples of Crustacea were collected and studied in the field.

Index

Deep Sea

Out of the material obtained during the Cruises of Sagar Sampada, a total of 2562 examples belonging to 7 species of Chaetognatha were identified.

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Fig 24. Echinoderm Fauna (Marine) of East Coast of India

Index

Ecological Studies

The following research studies pertaining to various ecosystems were continued during the year.

Index

Other Studies

Index

Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Studies

EIA Studies were conducted for Bansagar Canal Construction project in Uttar Pradesh. A total of 2269 specimens (2254 invertebrates and 15 vertebrates) were collected and studied.

Index

Identification of Advisory Services

ZSI Continued to render identification and advisory services free of cost to research and teaching institutes in India and abroad, Central and State Govt. Agencies, Non Governmental Organisations and individuals on Zoological matters. During this period, 177 queries pertaining to different faunal groups were attended to.

Index

Development of National Zoological Collcections

The ZSI, which is the National repository of Zoological specimens, maintains the collection of a large number of identified examples of species belonging to almost all groups of animals of the country. The National Zoological Collections were further enriched by the addition of 24678 specimens belonging to 1025 species including 8 species new to science.

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Fig 25. Langurs at Ranthambore National Park

Index

Training and Extension

The following Training Courses were organised during the year :-

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Fig 26. A herd of Cheetal at Bandipur Wildlife Sanctuary

Index

Publications

The following publications were released during the year:

Index

Other Activities

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Fig 27. Junonia orithya swinhoei Butler - The Blue Pansy from Sidhi district, M.P.

Index

Forest Survey of India (FSI)

The Forest Survey of India, established in June 1981 is entrusted with the responsibility of survey of forest resources in the country. The FSI has four zonal offices located at Bangalore, Calcutta, Nagpur and Shimla with headquarters at Dehradun.

The objectives of Forest Survey of India are

The activities of the FSI undertaken during the year were as follows :

Vegetation mapping

One of the main objectives of Forest Survey of India is to assess the forest cover and monitor, on a two year cycle, the broad changes in forest vegetation cover of the country by using multi-satellite data on 1:250,000 scale. The first assessment of the forest cover of the country was done based on visual interpretation of satellite imageries for the period 1981-83 and the first National Vegetation Map was prepared in 1987 on 1:1 million scale. Since then six reports have been published. The work of the seventh report is almost completed and proposed to be published in the middle of the year 2000. Forest Survey of India used Landsat data earlier but now use Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) data for the assessment of the forest cover. In the seventh assessment, data of IRS1C / 1D is also being used. Visual interpretation method of satellite is being phased out gradually by Digital Image Processing (DIP). Five high end workstations for DIP were commissioned in May 1999 which has been utilised for processing for satellite data of 12 states of the country comprising seven North-Eastern States, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashta and Andhra Pradesh.

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Fig 28. Semi-green forests of Kalakad

Index

Thematic Mapping

Forest Survey of India is engaged in preparing thematic map on a scale of 1:50,000 by interpretation of aerial photographs. These maps depict the forest types, species composition, crown density of forest cover and other land use. Every year about 5,000 aerial photographs corresponding to 260 topographical sheets (1:50,000) of Survey of India have been interpreted. Keeping inview the problems associated and relatively older data available in the aerial photos, this activity is being phased out. One work station is being provided to each zonal office who in turn will use satellite datas of high resolution (IRS 1C / ID-PAN Data) to prepare updated thematic maps with intensive ground truth and support state forest departments in preparation of Working Plans.

Index

Inventory Survey of Non-forest Area

Keeping in view the important role played by tree plantations and to assess the impact of social forestry and other forestry extension programmes in meeting fuelwood, timber needs of the people and raw material requirements of wood based industries, survey of plantation outside conventional forest was started by the Forest Survey of India in 1992. The survey, in Harayana has been completed and of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan are in advanced stage. This activity is gaining popularity because unknown wood resources growing outside forests has tremendous potential to meet society’s need.

Index

Forest Inventory

Since its inception as Pre-investment Survey of Forest Resources (PISFR) in 1965, field inventory has been one of the most important activities of Forest Survey of India. During the sixteen year of existence, PISFR carried out ground inventory over a forest area of 2.28 lakhs sq. km in India and 0.38 lakhs sq.km in Nepal and Bhutan. After creation of the Forest Survey of India in 1981, it has carried out field inventory in an additional area of 4.22 lakhs sq. km till 1998. Methodology adopted by the Forest Survey of India for carrying out field inventories ha based on the stratified random sampling with 0.01 intensity of sampling.

An inventory report prepared by the Forest Survey of India gives details of area estimates, topographic description, classification, rate of forest (healthy or degraded), ownership pattern, estimation of volume and other growth parameters such as height and diameter in different types of forest, estimation of growth, regeneration and mortality of important species, volume equation and wood consumption of the area studied. Forest Survey of India has planned to cover the growing stock assessment of the whole country in a short period of 4-5 years.

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Fig 29. A canopy of Green Forests at Anaimalai, Tamil Nadu

Index

Training

Forest Survey of India organizes eight to ten training programmes for forestry personnel of different level of responsibility on application of remote sensing techniques in forestry, GIS, forest inventory and electronic data processing. The duration of training varies from one week to four weeks depending on the level of personnel. One week compulsory training course is organized for the Indian Forest Services Officers. Two week training course is organized for the Working Plan and SFS Officers to expose them to the use of remote sensing techniques in preparation of working plans, updating stock maps, ground inventory and data processing. Four-week training is imparted to Forest Range Officers to train them in interpretation of satellite data and aerial photographs, forest inventory and electronic data processing. The skills of the technical staff of Forest Survey of India are also updated through suitably designed training course. A computer lab with fifteen computers alongwith appropriate softwares has been established to make the training more effective.

Index

Special Studies

Index

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Forest and Plantation Development Corporation Ltd.

The Andaman & Nicobar Islands Forest and Plantation Development Corporation Ltd., a Government of India Undertaking has an authorised capital of Rs. 600 lakhs. The paid-up share capital is Rs. 359.18 lakhs, all the shares being held by the Central Government. The Company started functioning in 1977 and is a category ‘C’ Central PSU. The Corporation has also financed its capital from the resources generated internally. The Department of Public Enterprises has given a status of Mini Ratna to the Corporation. The main activities of the Corporation during the year were timber logging and regeneration, oil palm cultivation and processing and commercial management of rubber plantation. The Corporation is trying to diversify its activities wherever possible within the ambit of its objectives.

Index

done.