5

PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION


Index


Introduction

According to the Policy Statement for Abatement of Pollution, the key elements for pollution prevention are adoption of the best available clean and practicible technologies at the beginning of the industrial operation rather than treatment at the end of the pipe line. One of the significant benefits inherent in this approach is that when the waste is reduced/eliminated or solvents are revived, the raw materials used during the various industrial processes are conserved and the effluents are minimised within the industrial premises. Hence the focus of various programmes and schemes of the Ministry and its associated organisations aimed at prevention and control of pollution are on issues such as adoption of clean technologies, waste minimisation, environment audit, human resource development, monitoring of polluting industries and assessment of pollution status of major metropolitan cities. The whole issue of pollution prevention and abatement is dealt with by both the command and control methods as well as voluntary regulations. Promotion of educational and awareness campaigns, fiscal incentives, development of mass based environmental standards, setting up of pollution monitoring networks etc. are being undertaken. Details of the schemes/programmes of the Ministry related to prevention and control of pollution are as follows:

Index

Development and Promotion of Cleaner Technologies

Establishment of the Indian Centre for Promotion of Cleaner Technologies (ICPC)

With the assistance of the World Bank, the Ministry is establishing the Indian Centre for Promotion of Cleaner Technologies (ICPC) as a network of expert institutions which will provide the necessary inputs in creating a data base on available technologies, their relative performance and ranking, the source (s) from where the technologies can be obtained, needed investments etc. The World Bank has provided US$ 2.00 million as grant-in-aid to set up the Centre. To begin with, two priority sectors namely; Industry and Energy have been identified for creating the data base. Counterpart funding to meet expenses of the staff for the initial three years period is to be met by the Government of India. A significant feature of the ICPC is that it shall provide evaluated and ranked technology options to the entrepreneurs.

Index

Demonstration Project on Cleaner Technologies

Under the Cleaner Production Programme through Promotion of Cleaner Technologies, a demonstration project on Thermo-Chemical Conversion Reactor for utilisation of Distillery Waste was undertaken by M/s Esvin Group of Companies. The project envisaged carrying out bench and demo plant trials before commercialisation. The trial runs have been completed and the findings submitted by M/s. Esvin to the Ministry are being scrutinised by experts. It is now proposed to commercialise the technology through a collaborative effort among the manufacturing unit(s) in the paper and distilleries sectors, Technology Development Agencies and Financial Institutions.

Index

Adoption of Clean Technologies in Small Scale Industries

The scheme for promotion, development and adoption of clean technologies including waste re-use or re-cycling, formulated earlier for small scale industries, is being continued. The following activities were carried out under the scheme, during the year:

Index

Waste Minimisation

A project on Waste Minimisation in Small Scale Industries has been launched with the National Productivity Council as the nodal agency, under the World Bank assisted Industrial Pollution Prevention Project. The objective of the Project is to increase the awareness, interests and the confidence of Indian Small and Medium Scale Industries to take up waste minimisation activities on a sustained basis. It also aims at generating enough indigenous capacity to create an environment of self help in waste minimisation in the industries. The proposal has two components to achieve these two objectives:

Fifteen Waste Minimisation Circles have been established at different places of the country with the objective of providing opportunities for sharing the views and knowledge of waste minimisation/pollution prevention among the workers in clusters of industries producing the same products. Three hundred waste minimisation measures have been identified by the members of the WMCs which on adoption have resulted in reduction of pollution load to the extent of 20 to 40 per cent. In addition, cost savings to the extent of Rs. 150 lakhs per annum is also expected.

Index

Environmental Statement (as part of Environmental Audit)

A Gazette Notification on Environmental Audit issued by the Ministry in 1992, under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 has made it mandatory for all the industrial units to submit an environmental statement to the concerned State Pollution Control Boards while seeking consent to operate under the relevant environmental norms. The Environmental Statements enable the units to take a comprehensive look at the industrial operations, facilitate the understanding of material flows and help them to focus on areas where waste reduction and consequently savings in material cost, is possible. Activities undertaken during the year are as follows:

Index

Network for Environmental Training at Tertiary Level in Asia and the Pacific (NETTLAP)

The Network for Environmental Training at Tertiary level in Asia and the Pacific (NETTLAP) was established in 1992 by UNEP. The overall objective of the programme is to provide a framework for catalysing, coordinating and organising environmental education and training activities in the Asia-Pacific region at the national, sub regional and regional levels. NETTLAP contributes to human resource development and strengthening of tertiary institutions in the Asia-Pacific region, and consists of institutions and individuals active in environmental education and training at tertiary level in this region. NETLAP works closely with its government appointed National Focal Points in the 37 over 200 key tertiary institutions and more than 200 staff member who are active in environmental education and training and who can contribute to and/or benefit from the availability of resource material and training programmes related to environment and development. NETTLAP also seeks to promote and support national networks in the member countries.

The NETTLAP National Foal Point for India is in the Ministry. Based on National consultations a detailed project proposal for establishing a National Partnership in Environmental Training (NPET-India) has been prepared and submitted to the UNDP for financial assistance. UNDP has included the same in the Country Programme of UNDP-India Environment which is under consideration.

Index

Status of Pollution Control in 17 Categories of Identified Highly Polluting Industries

Out of the 1551 large and medium industries identified in the 17 categories of highly polluting industries, 1261 have so far installed the requisite pollution control facilities to comply with the stipulated standards. 125 industries have been closed down and the remaining 165 industries are in the process of installing the requisite pollution control facilities. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and State Pollution Control Boards/Pollution Control Committees regularly monitor the status of pollution control in these industries. Legal action has been taken against all the 165 defaulting units.

A summary of the status/action taken in respect of the 165 defaulting units is given in Table - 7.

Table - 7

-------------------------------------------------------------------
Sl.No.  Status/Action  Total number of units
-------------------------------------------------------------------
(1)     Supposed to have complied as per 
        the affidavit given by the industry 
        (CPCB to inspect and verify)                       64
(2)     Under process of commissioning 
        requisite pollution control facilities as
        per specified time-bound programme                 58
(3)     Closure confirmed (10 by CPCB, 1 by 
        Hon ble Supreme Court)                             11
(4)     Closed on their own and directed not to 
        re-start till requisite pollution control 
        facilities are provided                            02
(5)     Matters pending in Hon ble Supreme 
        Court                                              24
(6)     Under process for appropriate action               06
-------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                          165
-------------------------------------------------------------------

A State-wise summary status of the pollution in the categories of industries as on December 15, 1997 is given in Table - 8.

Table - 8

State wise Summary Status of the Pollution Control in 17 Categories of Industries

(as per information available with CPCB on Dec.15, 1997)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
S.No.   State/UT        Total No. of Units    Closed     C#   Defaulters##
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
01.     Andhra Pradesh         173              28      141       04
02.     Arunachal Pradesh       00              00       00       00
03.     Assam                   15              00       10       05
04.     Bihar                   62              14       35       13
05.     Goa                     06              00       06       00
06.     Gujarat                177              03      167       07
07.     Haryana                 43              03       32       08
08.     Himachal Pradesh        09              00       09       00
09.     Jammu & Kashmir         08              03       01       04
10.     Karnataka               85              06       68       11
11.     Kerala                  28              04       20       04
12.     Madhya Pradesh          78              05       58       15
13.     Maharashtra            335              19      296       20
14.     Manipur                 00              00       00       00
15.     Meghalya                01              00       00       01
16.     Mizoram                 00              00       00       00
17.     Nagaland                00              00       00       00
18.     Orissa                  23              01       13       09
19.     Punjab                  45              03       25       17
20.     Rajasthan               49              05       42       02
21.     Sikkim                  01              00       00       01
22.     Tamil Nadu             119              02      114       03
23.     Tripura                 00              00       00       00
24.     UT-Andaman & Nicobar    00              00       00       00
25.     UT Chandigarh           01              00       01       00
26.     UT Daman & Diu,         00              00       00       00
        Dadra & Nagar
        Haveli
27.     UT Delhi                05              00       02       03
28.     UT Lakshadweep          00              00       00       00
29.     UT Pondicherry          06              00       02       04
30.     Uttar Pradesh          224              15      187       22
31.     West Bengal             58              14       32       12
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
        TOTAL                 1551             125     1261      165
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
#    Having adequate facilities to comply with the standards.
##   Not having adequate facilities to comply with the standards.

Index

Enforcement of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 in relation to Pollution Control

Following the decision taken by the National River Conservation Authority in their meeting held under the chairmanship of the Hon ble Prime Minister, the Ministry, through the CPCB has directed state PCBs and PCCs for issuing notice to polluting industries for installation of requisite effluent treatment system within a period of three months. The State PCBs/PCCs were also directed to issue closure order to those industries which do not take necessary action within a period of three months. As per the information received so far, there are a total of 2137 such units which do not comply with the environmental norms before discharging their waste into the water bodies.

Four Regional Committees were constituted to monitor implementation of the directions given by the CPCB/SPCBs/PCCs. The Committees also examined specific cases seeking extension of time limit beyond the three months period. Based on the justification provided by the industry the Committee examined specific cases and have recommended extension in certain genuine cases. The latest status, as on 24th November, 1997 of these units is as follows.:

---------------------------------------------------------------
(1)     Number of units which have complied 
        after issue of directions                       106
(2)     Number of industries closed                     480
(3)     Number of industries to be closed              1457
(4)     Number of industries for which 
        extension of time sought/recommended
        by the committee                                 94
---------------------------------------------------------------
                                                       2137
---------------------------------------------------------------

Index

Development of Environmental Standards

The Ministry has laid down industry specific as well as general effluent and emission standards under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. During the year standards for Coke Plants (byproduct recovery type) were finalised and notified in the official Gazette. Emission/effluent standards for the following categories of industries have also been finalised:

The compliance of these standards by industries/plants is ensured by the State PCBs/PCCs mainly through their consent mechanism.

Index

Recognition of Environmental Laboratories under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986

Under Section 12 and 13 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 the Ministry recognises environmental laboratories and Government Analysts working in thelaboratories, to carry out functions entrusted to them under the Act. While the powers for recognising laboratories of the Government and autonomous organisations have been delegated to the CPCB, laboratories in the private sector are given recognition by the Ministry. During the year, based on the examination and recommendation of the State Pollution Control boards, two private laboratories have been recognised.

Index

Industrial Pollution Complaints

During the year, around 680 complaints regarding various types of pollution-air, water, noise and soil have been received and attended to. Most of the complaints relate to pollution from small scale industrial units operating either amidst thickly populated residential areas or in the immediate vicinity of human settlements. The other category of complaints relates to the discharge of untreated or partially treated effluent and emissions from large and medium scale industries which contaminate the surface/ground water and create water logging, increases the levels of SPM and sulphur-dioxide which in turn may affect the crops and human health. Complaints have also been received about waste dumps, burning of animal carcass, operation of stone crushers, brick kilns, portable electric generator sets and air and noise pollution due to heavy vehicular traffic.

Index

Control of Pollution in Delhi

During the year, a White Paper on Pollution in Delhi with an Action Plan has been prepared. The White Paper is the culmination of a series of meetings/discussions held in the Ministry since May 1997, with all the concerned Central ministries, Departments, organisations, R&D experts, NGOs and eminent citizens and the Government of NCT of Delhi. Meetings were also held with the Chief Minister and the Lt. Governor of Delhi in July 1997.

The Action Plan has recommended specific measures for control of pollution relating to vehicular pollution, water pollution (pollution of river Yamuna, and industrial water pollution), industrial air pollution, solid waste generation, disposal, handling of hazardous wastes (hospital wastes and industrial hazardous wastes), noise pollution, and people s participation in making Delhi a cleaner city. The Action Plan has specific time-targets, which require to be adhered to by the implementing agencies/authorities. The White paper with the Action Plan was approved in principle by the Union Cabinet in November 1997.

Index

Major Measures Recommended for Control of Pollution in Delhi

In pursuance of these decisions, the Central Government, in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) and (3) of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, has constituted the Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority for the National Capital Region.

Index

Control of Vehicular Pollution

[Image]

The Ministry of Environment and Forests has recommended the notification of emission norms for passenger cars fitted with catalytic converters to be 50% lower than cars without it, meeting the 1.4.1996 emission standards, in the following manner:

----------------------------------------------------------------
Pollutant       Emission Standard for Petrol Driven 4-wheelers
                without Cat. Converter   with Cat. Converter
----------------------------------------------------------------
CO                      8.68 - 12.40        4.34 - 6.20
HC+NOx                  3.0 - 4.36          1.5 - 2.18
Total (CO+HC+NOx)       11.68 - 16.76       5.84 - 8.38
----------------------------------------------------------------

These norms have been notified by the Ministry of Surface Transport on 2.1.1998.

Phase-II of the programme for introduction of unleaded petrol has been formally notified vide, Ministry of Surface Transport s notification dated 19.2.1998. As per this Notification, unleaded petrol would be introduced in the capitals of all States and UTs and major towns, mentioned in the Table - 9 with effect from 1.6.1998 to cater to the requirements of new petrol-driven four wheeler vehicles introduced in these cities from this date.

Table - 9

Phase-II of the Programme of introduction of unleaded petrol, and catalytic converter fitted vehicles in the country from 1.6.1998

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
States/UTs                              Cities/Towns
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Andhra Pradesh                          Hyderabad, Vishakapattanam
Arunachal Pradesh                       Itanagar
Assam                                   Dispur
Bihar                                   Patna, Jamshedpur, Ranchi
Chandigarh                              Chandigarh
Goa                                     Panjim
Gujarat                                 Gandhinagar, Surat, Baroda
Haryana                                 Gurgaon, Hissar, Ambala
Himanchal Pradesh                       Shimla
J&K                                     Jammu, Srinagar
Karnataka                               Bangalore
Kerala                                  Trivandrum, Cochin, Calicut
Madhya Pradesh                          Bhopal, Indore
Maharashtra                             Pune, Nagpur
Manipur                                 Imphal
Meghalaya                               Shillong
Mizoram                                 Aizwal
Nagaland                                Kohima
Orissa                                  Bhubaneshwar
Punjab                                  Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jalandhar
Rajasthan                               Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur
Sikkim                                  Gangktok
Tripura                                 Agartala
Uttar Pradesh                           Lucknow, Allahabad, Kanpur
Andaman & Nicobar                       Port Blair
Dadra & Nagar Haveli                    Silvassa
Pondicherry                             Pondicherry
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Stricter emission norms for new vehicles effective from 1.4.2000 have been notified by the Ministry of Surface Transport on 28.8.1997. The progressive tightening of emission norms for vehicles at the manufacturing stage in given in Table- 10.

Table - 10

Phased Tightening of Exhaust Emission Standards for Indian Automobiles

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Category                        1991            1.4.1996        1.4.2000
Petrol Vehicles: (in grams/km)
Two Wheelers:
Total (CO+HC+NOx)               20-42             8.1             4.0
Three-wheelers:
Total (CO+HC+NOx)               20-42            12.15            6.0
Passenger Cars:
Total (CO+HC+NOx)               16.3-30.0        11.68-16.76      3.69
Diesel Vehicles: (in gms/KWh)
A. Gross Vehicles Weight greater than 3.5 ton (Heavy duty vehicles)
Total (CO+HC+NOx+PM)            35.5             28.0            13.96
B. Gross Vehicles Weight less than 3.5 ton (Light duty vehicles)
Total (CO+HC+NOx+PM)            35.5             28.0            13.96-14.57
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CO: Carbon monoxide, HC : Hydrocarbons, NOx : Oxides of Nitrogen, PM : Particulate Matter.

The Ministry of Environment and Forests has constituted an Inter-sectoral Committee under the Chairman, Central Pollution Control Board, to formulate an auto-oil programme to come into effect from the year 2005. The Committee will recommend emission norms for vehicles at the manufacturing stage and fuel specifications of automotive fuels for vehicles meeting such norms.

Based on the recommendation of MoEF, the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas has, since 14.8.1997, advanced the supply of low-sulphur diesel with 0.25% sulphur content in Delhi, from the planned date of 1.4.1999, with a view to reducing particulate emissions. The measure would also help in the introduction of diesel vehicles with improved engine design meeting stricter emission standards.

Index

Phase-out of old vehicles/deregistration of old vehicles in Delhi

The Ministry of Environment and Forests has delegated power under Section 20 of the Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 to the Government of NCT of Delhi, based on which the Government of NCT of Delhi has brought out an instruction on 11.8.1997 for imposing restrictions on all commercial vehicles in Delhi which inter-alia includes phasing out of old commercial vehicles in a time-bound programme beginning from April 1998 as per the following schedule:

By 31.3.1998 vehicles more than 15 years of age.

By 31.3.1999 vehicles more than 12 years of age.

By 31.3.2000 vehicles more than 10 year of age.

After 31st March 2001, no medium and heavy vehicles (both passenger and goods vehicles) more than eight years old shall ply in Delhi. The commercial vehicles being the major contributors of smoke and particulates, the implementation of this very important measure is expected to reduce the pollution load from in-use aged vehicles significantly.

The instructions issued on 11.8.97 also state that:

Apart from the regular enforcement activity, special intensive drives have also been carried out by the Transport Department from time to time. As a result of expansion of the pollution checking facilities and intensification of enforcement activities, the number of vehicles availing PUC check has increased during 1997, as per Table - 11.

Table - 11

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Period                          January-June 1997       January-June 1996
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
No. of vehicles given PUC
certificates                        17.7 lakhs              6.2 lakhs
No. of vehicles tuned/repaired & 
pollution brought within 
prescribed limits                    3.3 lakhs              1.1 lakhs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Index

Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is a direct manifestation of increasing industrialisation, urbanisation, vehicular traffic and other commercial activities. It is as much an environmental issue as water, air and soil pollution. Sound levels have increased over the time to the extent that it seems to be irreversible. The Central Pollution Control Board has been regularly conducting noise pollution surveys in major Indian cities. During the current year such surveys have been conducted in the cities of Varanasi and Dehradun. The data collected for Varanasi indicates that noise levels are well within the limits in all the areas except in the commercial areas where it exceeds the prescribed standards during certain times of the day. Similarly, monitoring of noise pollution for Dehradun reveals that noise levels are within the limits in the industrial and residential areas. However it exceeds the standards in commercial areas and silence zones during certain times of the day.

A high level Committee on Noise Pollution has been constituted at the National Level to look into the growing menace of noise pollution in the major metropolitan cities of the country. The committee has recommended that noise levels from the bursting crackers should not exceed 100 dBA at the distance of four meters. Accordingly, directions have been issued to all the concerned authorities at the state level to check the noise pollution from bursting of crackers.

Index

Urban Environment

An initiative has been taken to develop Environment Management Plans for the 23 metropolitan cities of the country. In this context, the North Zonal office of CPCB has taken up a pilot study titled Environment Management Plan for Kanpur Urban Area . The study aims at incorporation of environmental parameters for the urban development programme and to the carrying capacity of the area on sustainable basis. This study also outlines an implementation plan to improve the environmental quality of the existing neighbourhoods in the city through the process of regeneration. In addition to this, the following activities have been carried out in the area of urban environment during the year:

In the series for assessment of environmental status of the metropolitan cities of the country environmental status report have been received for the cities of Hyderabad, Jammu and Coimbatore. These studies have outlined the demographic profile, land use pattern, water quality system, solid waste management, air and noise pollution and vehicular emission of the cities studied.

Index

Awareness Creation for Prevention and Control of Pollution

The Policy Statement for abatement of pollution issued in 1992 had laid emphasis on environmental awareness and public participation in pollution control activities. Accordingly, it has been included in various educational and awareness programmes of the Ministry including Paryavaran Vahini , Films, Seminars, Workshops etc. In addition, a NGO Cell has been created in the CPCB and some of the State Pollution Control Boards/Pollution Control Committees which undertake various programmes to encourage the role of masses in pollution control activities. Some of these are mentioned below:

Index

Constitution of Authorities under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986

In compliance with the various Supreme Court Orders the Ministry of Environment and Forests has constituted following Authorities under sub-section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986:

These authorities have started functioning as per their mandate during the current year.

Index

Central Pollution Control Board

The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is an autonomous body of the Ministry set up in Sept.1974, under the provisions of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. It coordinates the activities of the State Pollution Control Boards (CPCBs) and the Pollution Control Committees (PCCs). The CPCB, SPCBs and the PCCs are responsible for implementing the legislation relating to prevention and control of pollution; they also develop rules and regulations which describe the standards for emissions and effluents of air and water pollutants and noise level. The CPCB advises the Central Government on all matters concerning the prevention and control of air, water and noise pollution and provides technical services to the Ministry for implementing the provisions of the Environment (Protection)Act, 1986.

Details of some of the major activities of the CPCB during the year are given below:-

Index

Assessment and Monitoring of Water Quality

Water Quality Monitoring of Indian Aquatic Resources

Water Quality Monitoring is an important aspect of water quality management. It helps in identification of the areas in need of restoration, extent of pollution control required, effectiveness of pollution control efforts and water quality trend over a period of time. At present CPCB, in collaboration with State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) has been sampling aquatic resources at 480 monitoring stations on monthly/quarterly basis and analysing them for 24 parameters. Out of these 480, 50 stations are under GEMS (Global Environmental Monitoring System) and 430 are under MINARS (Monitoring of Indian Aquatic Resources) programmes. The monitoring data are scrutinised and compared with the water quality objectives set for different water bodies in the country. Based on the long term water quality data generated over the years, the CPCB has identified 13 heavily polluted and 26 medium polluted river stretches. The action plans for most of these stretches have been prepared.

From the monitoring results it can be concluded that at the majority of the river locations monitored, the water quality is not matching with the desired water quality. The main reason for such violation is mostly total coliform and Biochemical Oxygen Demand levels in the water. These pollutants are mainly contributed by the discharge of untreated/domestic sewage.

In the case of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers too, although massive action plans are being implemented, the water quality is gradually degrading. This is mainly due to continuous increases in pollution loads from the towns located along these rivers and operation and maintenance problems in the sewage treatment plants installed.

Index

Studies on Medium and Minor Rivers

Assessment of pollution loads in 26 identified stretches of medium and minor rivers of the States of Gujarat, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Orissa has been undertaken by the CPCB for the National River Conservation Directorate. While the survey work of ten rivers in Kerala and one in Gujarat have been completed, work on the remaining 15 rivers is in progress. Details of the identified polluted stretches of medium and minor rivers of peninsular India are given in Table - 12.

Table - 12

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
No.     River/Stretch                                           State
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.      Damanganga/Minor: d/s. GIDC Estate Weir,                Gujarat
                        Vapi Daman village (V.T)
2.      Kolak/Minor : d/s. confluence GUDC drain,               Gujarat
                        Vapi-Kolak village
3.      Par (estuary)/Minor: after weir of Atul-                Gujarat
                        Magod-Dungari
4.      Vishwamitri/Medium (sub) : u/s, Vadodara                Gujarat
                        -confluence with R.
                        Dhadar at Pingalwada
5.      Dhadhar/Medium: d/s. confluence with R.                 Gujarat
                        Vishwamitri at Pingalwada
                        -village Amod
6.      Bhadar/Medium: village Jetpur-village                   Gujarat
                        Ratia (on coastal highway)
7.      Ambica/Medium: village Bilimora-village                 Gujarat
                        Vagheroge
8.      Khandepar (Mandovi basin - Medium)                      Goa
9.      Guloli (Zuari basin)                                    Goa
10.     Sal/Minor                                               Goa
11.     Valapattanam/Minor                                      Kerala
12.     Kallada/Minor                                           Kerala
13.     Chalakkudy/Minor                                        Kerala
14.     Muvattupuzha/Minor                                      Kerala
15.     Achencoil/Minor                                         Kerala
16.     Karamana & Killiyar/Minor                               Kerala
17.     Chaliyar/Medium                                         Kerala
18.     Bharathapuzha/Medium                                    Kerala
19.     Periyar/Medium                                          Kerala
20.     Pamba/Medium                                            Kerala
21.     Vaigai/Medium:u/s-d/s Theni                             Tamil Nadu
22.     Vaigai/Medium:Madurai - Thiruppuvanam                   Tamil Nadu
23.     Budhabalanga/Medium                                     Orissa
24.     Nagavali/Medium                                         Orissa
25.     Kalinadi/Medium                                         Karanataka
26.     Netravati/Medium                                        Karanataka
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Index

Case Studies on Coastal Fragile Areas

The coastal environment plays an important role in nation s economy because of its resources and habitat. It is subjected to a variety of environmental stresses due to developmental activities and large scale human settlement. Avoidance of conflicting uses, promotion and protection of habitats, prevention of pollution and sustainable development can be achieved through proper planning and policy formulation, for which information and scientific database are required. The following fragile coastal areas of the country have been identified for compiling baseline data, with a view to manage them scientifically.

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Gujarat                         :    Gulf of Kutch
                                :    of South Dwaraka
Maharashtra                     :    Malwan-Vengurla coast
Goa                             :    Beaches of Goa
Karanataka                      :    Coastal area of Gokaran
Kerala                          :    Cochin Backwaters
                                :    Kovalam beach
Lakshaweep                      :    Coral reefs
Tamil Nadu                      :    Thiruchendur
                                :    Tuticorin
                                :    Gulf of Mannar
                                :    Vedaranyam
                                :    Pitchavaram
                                :    Mahabalipuram
                                :    Kovalam
                                :    Marina beach
Pondicherry                     :    Pondicherry beach
Andhra Pradesh                  :    Pulicat lake 
                                :    Nizampatnam
                                :    Machilipatnam
                                :    Coringa
Orissa                          :    Puri & Konark beaches
                                :    Chilka Lake
                                :    Bhitar Kanika
                                :    Gahirmata
West Bengal                     :    Sunderbans
                                :    Digha
                                :    Baikali
Andaman & Nicobar Islands       :    Andaman & Nicobar Islands
--------------------------------------------------------------------

The baseline data include information on climate, water & sediment quality, solid waste generation, tourism, urbanisation, industrialisation, natural calamities, fishing, other biological resources and bio-diversity.

Index

Assessment and Monitoring of Air Quality

National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Programme

The ambient air quality is a dynamic and complex environmental phenomenon exhibiting variations with time and space. Its evaluation is the fundamental requirement towards assessment of the nature and extent of air quality variables. Under the nation-wide National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (NAAQM) programme , initiated in 1984, 290 stations covering over 92 towns/cities spread over 24 states and 4 Union Territories, monitor the ambient air quality. The NAAQM network is operated through the respective SPCBs, the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur and the CPCB. Besides meteorological parameters like wind speed and direction, temperature and humidity, the stations also monitor pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and suspended particulate matter (SPM). In addition to these, specific parameters, like ammonia (NH3) hydrogen sulphide (H2 S), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are also monitored.

Index

Ambient air quality monitoring in Delhi under the National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (NAAQM) Programme

The ambient air quality of Delhi continued to be monitored at six monitoring stations located at Ashok Vihar Siri Fort, Janakpuri, Nizammuddin, Shahzada Bagh and Shahdara. The data on an annual mean basis for 1997 indicates high values of suspended particulate matter (SPM) at all the residential areas where the values are found to be more than twice that of the permissible standard. In the Industrial areas, the SPM values are found to be well within the prescribed limit. The annual mean values of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) remain within prescribed limits at all the six locations. The range of concentration of SO2, NO2 and SPM in respect of NAAQM Stations in Delhi for the year 1997, is given in Table 13.

Table - 13

Range of Concentration (Tav-24 Hrs.) of Ambient Air Quality Parameters during 1997

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                SO2                     NO2                     SPM
Monitoring Stations     ------------------        ------------------     ------------------
                        Min.   Max.   Mean        Min.   Max.   Mean     Min.   Max.   Mean
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ashok Vihar (R)         03      24      14        14    33      23      146     554     327
Shahzada Bagh (I)       19      38      24      32     51       45      198     518     295
Siri Fort (R)           87      28      13      23      44      38      235     701     388
Janakpuri (R)           11      24      16      20      42      35      105     573     362
Nizamudin (R)           11      23      17      25      43      37      179     966     382
Shahdara (I)            07      52      16      16      55      29      157     869     333
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note : All values are in Microgram per cubic metre (g/m3)
       Abbreviation : R - Residential; I - Industrial; Tav - Total Average.

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Sampling and Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Ambient Air of Delhi

Routine measurement of 15 PAH compounds, viz. naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, benzanthracene, chrysene benzo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo (e) pyrene benzo (a) pyrene, perylene, indeno pyrene, dibenz (ah) anthracene and benzo (ghi) perylene in air particulate samples collected at the six NAAQM Stations (Siri Fort, Ashok Vihar, Nizamuddin, Shahdara Shazada Bagh and JanakPuri) of Delhi and one Integrated Air Quality Monitoring Station at the B.S.Z. Marg (ITO), New Delhi are being continued. The results obtained during July, 1996-June, 1997 are shown in Figure 55. Major findings are as follows:-

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Monitoring at ITO, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi

CPCB has one Integrated Air Quality Monitoring Station at Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg where monitoring of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) is done using manual monitoring techniques while carbon monoxide (CO) is monitored using continuous monitoring equipment. The ambient air quality data on annual mean basis for 1997 indicates high values of SPM. The average monthly concentration of CO recorded at ITO station is given in Figure-56 while the range of concentration of SO2, NO2 and SPM are given in Figure-57. The data set indicate that the period before January and November is critical since the average monthly value of CO exceed the permissible limit.

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Ambient Noise Level Monitoring

CPCB has been monitoring ambient noise level during Deepawali festival regularly since 1993 at seven locations in Delhi to assess the increase in ambient noise level due to bursting of crackers. During the year, besides the seven locations, monitoring of noise level was also done at Patel Nagar for a short duration between 18.00 hrs to 24.00 hrs. In addition to this, continuous monitoring was conducted at three more new locations, i.e. Kamla Nagar (North Delhi), Kirti Nagar (West Delhi), and Mansarover Park (East Delhi) during the same period, The result shows that the ambient noise level on Deepawali day range from 72.3 to 91.8 Leq dB (A) whereas on normal days, it ranged from 52.2 to 62.5 Leq dB (A).

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Study of dust fall rate in Delhi

The measurement of dust fall rate indirectly indicates the amount of pollutants emitted by the industries. A study on dust fall in Delhi area is being undertaken at six locations, identified on the basis of area use, three stations are located in residential areas the other three are in industrial areas. The study reveals that the mean values of total dust recorded in industrial areas during 1997 are greater than at residential areas. This may be attributed to the various industrial processes like grinding, crushing and industrial emissions.

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Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries - District-wise

The Zoning Atlas for siting of industries, zones and classifies the environment in a district and presents the pollution receiving potential of various sites/zones in the district and the possible alternate sites for industries, through easy-to-read maps. The industrial zones are identified based on the sensitivity and pollution receiving potential of the district. The work which involves a large volume of spatial data is being done using GIS (Geographic Information System). The pilot studies on preparation of Zoning Atlas for siting of industries taken up during 1995 in 19 districts covering 14 States have been extended to 36 districts in 16 States during 1997-98. The Atlases prepared in the first phase of the programme have been validated with the concerned Government Department/agencies and are now being published for public use. A training programme to educate the end-user of the Atlas viz. implementing agencies like Industrial Departments, Pollution Control Boards etc. has already been conducted in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh and similar training programmes have been chalked out for other States as well.

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Industrial Estate Planning

As a continuation of Zoning Atlas study, industrial estate planning studies are being taken up at a more micro-level (1:50000 and lower) to finally come up with sites for industrial estates. The main objectives of the project are:

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Mapping Environmentally Sensitive Zones and Industrial Sites-State-wise

This activity aims at presenting the information on environmentally sensitive zones viz. national parks, reserved forests, protected forests etc. and industrial sites, statewise, in the form of maps. These maps will be useful in taking decisions on industrial sites. The pilot study for Bihar taken up in 1996 has been completed and 11 more states have been taken up during 1997-98.

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Sanitation Status in Class I cities

There are 299 class I cities in the country as per the 1991 census. A questionnaire survey was conducted to study the water supply, wastewater generation, collection treatment and disposal in these cities, which indicates that the total quantity of water supplied in 299 cities is 20, 833 mld and wastewater generated is 15,722 mld. Out of this, 24% receive treatment mostly partial before disposal. The per capita water supply in class I cities is 182 lpcd, which is an improvement of about 22% over the 1988 water supply values.

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Status of Municipal Solid Waste in Class I cities

A questionnaire survey was conducted to study the status of municipal solid waste generation, their collection, treatment and disposal in the 299 class I cities of the country. The total municipal solid waste generated from these cities is estimated to be 48, 134 tonnes per day, of which 62% is contributed by the 23 metro cities, which contribute 51% of the total population of class I cities. The average per capita generation of solid waste for class I cities works out to be 0. 376 kg/ person/day. The compostable organic matter ranges from 24% to 58% of the solid waste with an average value of 35% by weight for the class I cities.

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Other activities of CPCB

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Hazardous Substances Management

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