[Environmental Research, G.B Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Research on Biosphere Reserve, Wetlands and Mangroves, Forestry Research, Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute, Indian Institute of Forest Management, Wildlife Research, National Natural Resource Management System]
Research is basic to any developmental activity. The Ministry supports research in multidisciplinary aspects of environment protection, conservation and development in identified thrust areas. The primary objectives of research promotion are to develop strategies, technologies and methodologies for better environment management and also to create infrastructure for environmental research and a pool of trained manpower to shoulder the responsibility of environment management in the country . Environmental Research particularly aims at attempting solutions to the practical problems of resource management and provides necessary inputs for the twin objective of conservation of natural resources and restoration of environmental quality.
The environmental research in the Ministry is being supported under various programmes/schemes like
Environment Research Programme (ERP)
Ecosystem Research Scheme
Research Programme for Eastern and Western Ghats
Pitambar Pant National Environment Fellowship Award
B.P.Pal National Environment Fellowship Award for Biodiversity.
During the year, under Research and Development Scheme, 41 new projects were initiated, 26 studies were completed and 119 ongoing projects were reviewed and monitored for their progress. The details of the sanctioned and completed projects are given in Annexures II and III respectively.
Environment Research Programme specifically deals with brown agenda i.e. problems related to pollution, chemical, biochemical and engineering investigations, technology development for waste minimization, waste recycling, resource recovery, effluent treatment and other environmental studies related to pollution control, development of instruments for pollution measuring and control, development of eco-friendly and cleaner technologies etc.
Ecosystem Research Scheme is an inter-disciplinary programme of research which emphasizes ecological approach for studying the relationship between man and environment. The objective of the programme is to develop a basis within the field of natural and social sciences for rational use and conservation of resources for general improvement of the relationship between man and his environment. The programme seeks to provide a scientific basis to solve the practical problems of resource management. The programme also seeks to provide scientific knowledge and trained personnel needed to manage the natural resources in a rational and sustainable manner. Ecosystem studies becomes even more important as the Earth’s environmental systems are increasingly being affected at all levels. Ecological understanding and research in this area offer tangible hope for addressing extremely complex and potentially devastating assaults on local, regional and global ecosystems. Under the scheme, emphasis is laid on multi-disciplinary aspects of environmental conservation with emphasis on eco-system approach consistent with the identified thrust areas and orientation.
The Eastern and Western Ghats Research Programme addresses itself to location-specific problems of resource management in the Eastern and Western Ghats regions of the country. Under this programme, studies relating to bio-diversity, land use, impact of developmental activities etc. are taken up.
Details of specific research activities under Pitambar Pant Fellowship and B.P. Pal Fellowship are given in Chapter 8.
Highlights of some of the completed projects :
Development of mixed culture based BOD biosensor for instant and reproducible monitoring of BOD load in wastewater
The aim of the project was to develop a mixed culture based BOD biosensor to be used for rapid and reproducible determination of BOD of wastewaters. BOD biosensor has been developed which gives response within 5-10 minutes, a reduction of 400% as compared to the conventional method. The BOD load of the sensor samples can be sensed very rapidly with in 5-10 minutes with the help of developed BOD sensor. The biosensor will also be ustilised for online monitoring of the potential load (BOD) of industrial wastewater.
Eco-friendly utilisation of non-biodegradable polymeric waste in modification of Bitumen for waterproofing system
The project was undertaken for the development of a process know-how for the effective utilisation of polymeric wastes in the bitumen for waterproofing application. Two kinds of polymeric wastes were chosen, first was isocyanate production waste and second was plastics wastes. The polymeric wastes were given stearate/ozonised treatment to allow to reduce the phases size and ensure their anchoring to the bitumen. Sealing compound/water proofing coating utilizing the isocyanate production waste and water proof roof mastics from plastics waste have been developed. The waste utilization in sealing compound was about 60% while bituminous mastics contains 80% plastics waste. The results of the project will help in sorting out the environmental problems by adopting a material recycling approach towards polymeric wastes disposal. The process has been patented.
Development of high efficiency gas-liquid-solid fluidised bed bioreactor (FBBR) for water pollution control
The present work reports the biodegradation of phenol using Pseudomonas pictorum immobilized in activated carbon in a continuous mode using fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR). The optimum pH and temperature for the growth of the microorganism were 7.0-8.0 and 30-34 degree centrigade respectively with an optimum concentration of phenol at 500 mg/l. It was also observed that the rate of phenol degradation increases with the bio-film thickness.
Application of photocatalysts in the treatment of water and wastewater
Keeping in view the advantages of photocatalysis attempt has been made to degrade the commonly used textile and leather dyes from the aqueous solution using TiO/ZnO catalyst in the presence of UV/solar light in a batch reactor. The study demonstrates the activity of the photocatalyst in the degradation of dyes. In addition to the removal of colour, simultaneous reduction of COD, TOC and formation of NO3, NH4 and SO4 suggest the mineralisation of dissolved dyes. The study also revealed that photocatalysis is a viable technique to treat the industrial effluent. The thin film coating studies of TiO2 and ZnO revealed that this technique could be upgraded to treat large volume of wastewater.
Electrochemical treatment of dyes in textile, cosmetics, food and pharmaceutical industrial effluents
In this project, electrochemical method have been successfully applied for the treatment of effluents that are having colouring compounds. The study reveals that using electrochemical technique, the colour could be removed completely from the intense dark coloured (0.002 M solution) solution of Napthol Yellow S, Rhodamine B, Orange II, Sudan III, Eosin Yellow, Alizarin Red S, Erythrosine, Indigocarmine, PatenBlue VF and Tartrazine. Optimum conditions of reduction and oxidation of model dyes have been establised on various electrodes and thereafter controlled potential electrolysis have been carried out.
Recovery of lead from spent led acid batteries
The disposal of scrap batteries is a serious problem which causes environmental concern. An eco-friendly electrolytic route has been investigated for the extraction of lead from scrap batteries. The route comprises breaking of batteries, separation of portions of metallic and lead compounds, desulphurisation, leaching followed by electrowinning. The lead compound portion is desulphurised using sodium hydroxide to lead monoxide which is leached with fluoboric acid. Electrolytically pure lead cathode deposit is obtained by electrowinning. Anodic deposition of lead dioxide is major problem identified in the electrowinning of lead. Addition of soluble compound of phosphorus or arsenic is found to inhibit lead dioxide effectively. The purity level of electrolytic lead obtained from the scrap batteries is analysed by AAS and mass spectrometry. Cost analysis has been made for the production of 1000 tonnes of lead/year.
Role of cadmium as a causative agent in hypertension and renal damage and the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology
Experimental studies revealed that intraperitonial administration of Cd causes hypertension and renal Na+K+ ATPase activity, a marker of renal toxicity in rats. In a separate series of experiments Cd administration (ip) for 14 days resulted in significant hypertension and high renal accumulation of Cd (56 µg/g) there by indicating a causative role of Cd in the pathogenesis of hypertension and renal damage in rats.
Monitoring the status of moth component in the Biodiversity of North-Western Himalayan Ecosystem
This was undertaken to make collections of the moth diversity from various localities within the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Uttaranchal. Forty nine localities have been repeatedly surveyed and out of these three localities viz., Renuka, Nauni and Dehradun have been found to be rich spots for moth diversity. Sarkaghat (Mandi, H.P.) in the Western Himalaya was found to be a good spot for systematic studies on sphingid diversity.
Plant diversity and community patterns in managed and natural growth forests of north eastern Uttar Pradesh
This was taken up to study the various major and minor forest stands at different maturity status and facing different degree of disturbance within the forested landscape. The study covered the community structure and diversity pattern, the population status and age structure of surviving species, their growth pattern and architecture and the regeneration strategy of species, occupying recurrently disturbed environment. The soil conservation efficiency and biomass extraction potential of common woody perennials have also been assessed.
Evaluation of fire retardant species to form vegetational fire breaks in Grass Hills, Western Ghats
Twenty six evergreen/succulent native species were identified as fire retardant species. Among them three species viz. Berberis tinctoria, Elaeagnus kologa and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa were selected on the basis of their ecological characters for experimentation. In fire trials, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa was shown to be a promising fire break in controlling the spread of grassland fire in Nilgiris.
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, established in August 1988, at Kosi-Katarmal, Almora has been identified as a focal agency, to advance scientific knowledge, evolve integrated management strategies, demonstrate their efficacy for conservation of natural resources and to ensure environmentally sound development in the entire Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). The Institute has at present four units located at Srinagar (Garhwal Unit), Mohal-Kullu (Himachal Unit), Tadong-Gangtok (Sikkim Unit) and Itanagar (NE-Unit) to promote S&T initiatives for overall development in the IHR. The broad areas of concern include various core programmes, namely Land and Water Resource Management, Sustainable Development of Rural Ecosystems, Conservation of Biological Diversity, Ecological Economics, Environment Impact Assessment, Institutional Networking, Human Resource Development, Environmental Physiology, Biotechnology, and Indigenous Knowledge Systems.
Institute’s initiative in regards to validation of the spring sanctuary concept has established that there are great possibilities to increase the water yield of drying springs to cope up with the shortage of drinking water in rural areas in the region. The perception studies conducted in the selected watersheds indicate peoples’ willingness to participate in spring sanctuary development . Also the performance study of community managed and govt. managed canal irrigation systems revealed that community systems perform better (conveyance efficiency up to 80%) due to flexibility in their operation and management. Irrigation scheduling was very effective in community managed canal systems, which were developed using the catchment approach. Identification of factors responsible for the efficient canal system can be used for developing guidelines for improving the management of canals in the region .
To address the issues of slope stabilization, experiments conducted by the Institute on steep slopes created by dumping of excavated soils have established that low-cost bio-engineering techniques are effective in reducing soil erosion. Over a period of three years, such slopes got stabilized and sediment yield reduced by about 95 per cent mainly due to protection of slope from erosion activities.
Institute recognized the need for documentation of traditional practices of soil and water conservation (SWC) and initiated studies in this direction. Reduced tillage and mulching experiment revealed that despite more availability of nutrients under traditional farming practices the crop yield is low and they loose more soil and water.
Considering the importance of understanding resource use management strategies of various indigenous societies, the Institute focused on the traditional systems existing in Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh while continuing the studies on Tangsa, Adi, Nyishis and Apatanies, and Tolchhas of Joshimath area in Garhwal Himalaya. The importance of bamboo as a resource in some of these traditional societies was quantified during the year. The studies on the agrobiodiversity management strategies of Tolchha community got international recognition as the work was linked with environmental changes.
Furthermore, the initiatives of understanding the value of indigenous knowledge systems were strengthened through completion of case studies. The studies on indigenous use of temur (Zanthoxylum armatum) and its socio-economic dimensions in Uttaranchal Himalaya, has highlighted significant economic value of this resource. The other investigations in this direction include: indigenous practice of preparing fermented food and beverages; analysis of indigenous agricultural practices in the light of its efficiency and sustainability.
The Institute completed an assignment to put together an analytical compilation of the data sets, and synthesize various issues to integrate the individual working plans in a uniform manner so as to provide the broad guideline for the project implementation of Integrated Watershed Development Programme (IWDP) in the Siwaliks.
Institute further strengthened activities of scaling–up multiplication and content analysis of important plant species. It was found that endogenous plant growth regulators play an important role during root initiation. An increase in endogenous putrescine and spermine content was recorded prior to in vitro root initiation in Rosa damascena. A marked variation (0.05-5-0% of dry wt.) in podophyllotoxin (used for preparation of anticancer drugs) content was found among 16 different population of Podophyllum hexandrum collected from Garhwal and Kumaun Himalaya.
To determine the physiological basis of adaptations in plants in terms of photosynthetic characteristics and growth, considerable variations in photosynthesis and chlorophyll content were observed in different plant species, a seasonal variation in these parameters was also recorded.
Large scale isolations from the soil samples collected from the rhizospheres of Himalayan plant species have been carried out. The microbial isolates obtained have been screened for N-fixing and P-solubilizing abilities and for production of antimicrobial substances. Species of Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Trichoderma have been selected as inoculants for growth promotion and biocontrol. Further, microbial inoculation trials are in progress using agricultural, forest and tissues culture raised species.
Under the initiatives to establish gene banks following activities were undertaken:
Monitoring field performance of in-vitro raised plantlets of selected multipurpose tree speices (i.e. Sapium sebiferum, Bauhinia vahlii, Diploknema butyracea);
development of germ plasm bank of selected medicinal plants (e.g. Arnebia benthamii, Angelica glauca, Saussurea costus, and Swertia angustfolia);
collection of seed provenance of identified medicinal plants, and transplantation of seedlings at different elevations for performance studies;
development of seed germination protocols (e.g. Arnebia benthamii, Anelica glauca);
development of micropropagation protocols (e.g. Arnebia benthamii).
The techniques/methodologies developed during these studies were disseminated among the common people through peoples participation workshop.
Realizing the importance of Protected Areas (PAs) in maintaining the regional representative pool of biodiversity, the institute undertook a detailed analysis of available information on Himalayan PAs. Based on the results of this analysis, priority issues were identified for PAs of IHR. Through a detailed review of geophysical and bio-diversity values in a low profile PA (i.e. Askot Wildlife Sanctuary, West Himalaya) it was established that several neglected (low profile) PAs in the region have potential to address the issues associated with the PA network of the Himalaya. The review recommends the urgent needs for redefining the priorities for improving the effectiveness of PA network in the IHR.
Organization of a Training Programme on Environmental Economics for Practicing Scientists and Ecologists (Oct, 2001) provided a platform for intense interactions, discussions and capacity building mechanism. The programme was successful in identifying the regional and national research priorities, validating methodologies wherein approaches of ecologists and economists intersect; and breadth of methodologies outreach to other disciplines. An attempt was made to prepare a commentary on the subject matter on make participant understand the concepts and also be abreast with the contemporary investigations on various aspects of ecological economics.
Considering the nature of economy, the level of literacy and the status of women in the Himalayan region, which varies considerably from community to community, and in different altitudinal zones, the Institute initiated a study on impact of economic condition and education on the fertility behaviour of women in Central Himalayan region. The preliminary results show positive relationship between fertility behaviour indicators, altitude and per capita income.
The study on Environmental Impact Assessment of Desiltation Operation at Bhimtal Lake, Kumaun, Central Himalaya was undertaken to highlight the need for incorporation of additional activities in the list of projects for which EIA is mandatory. The study indicates that despite having elaborate EIA norms in the country regarding various types of developmental projects, activities involving alteration/modification to existing topography in the Himalayan region should be brought under EIA notification.
To address the issues of growing menance of solid waste in the Himalayan region especially in view of increased tourism activity, the institute undertook studies on air quality monitoring and solid waste characterization in Kullu valley. The study focussed attention on hospital and household waste characterization. The institute continued with reaching different remote areas of the IHR through Integrated Eco-development Research Programme (IERP). Out of the funded projects, 16 projects were completed successfully and 47 R & D projects are ongoing in 10 Indian Himalayan States.
As a central facility, Institute strengthened central nursery at Kosi-Katarmal. The seedling and sapling raised in the nursery are being provided to various users. The Institute disseminated the results of various research programmes among rural people by organizing various onsite training workshops and meetings as well as through publications. Several scientists of the institute serve as member of various thematic working groups (TWG), regional and state working groups on National Bio-diversity Strategies and Action Plan (NBSAP) process. The institute is also coordinating one of the TWG (Wild Plant Biodiversity) and State Biodiversity Action Plan (U.P).
Research on Biosphere Reserves, Wetlands and Mangroves
Research activities under Biosphere Reserves, Wetlands and Mangroves programmes are overseen by specific advisory committees. During the year, several projects have been sanctioned under these schemes. The list of such sanctioned and completed research projects are given in Annexure III and IV respectively.
Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun
The Council is the premier forestry research organization of the country with the mandate to formulate, organize, direct, and manage forestry research, transfer the technologies developed to States and other user agencies and impart forestry education.
The objectives of the Council are :
To undertake, aid, promote and coordinate forestry education, research and its application.
To develop and maintain a National Library and Information Center for forestry and allied sciences.
To act as a clearing-house for research and general information relating to forests and wildlife.
To develop forestry extension programmes and propagate the same through mass media, audio-visual aids and extensions machinery.
To provide consultancy services in the field of forestry research, education and training and in allied sciences.
To do other things considered necessary to attain these objectives.
The Council has eight research institutes and three advanced centers in various parts of the country to cater to the research needs of different bio-geographical regions of the nation. These are located at Dehradun, Shimla, Allahabad, Ranchi, Jorhat, Jabalpur, Chhindwara, Jodhpur, Hyderabad, Bangalore and Coimbatore.
The comprehensive document of National Forestry Research Plan (NFRP) printed in two volumes was released and ICFRE Technology Mission was prepared for the expansion of country’s Forest cover and increasing its productivity.
Planting Stock Improvement Programme (PSIP)
ICFRE has established 3373 ha Seed Production Areas (SPAs), 13 ha clonal seed orchards (CSOs), 5.96 ha seedling seed orchards (SSOs), 3.5 ha vegetative multiplication gardens (VMGs) for important species and six modern nurseries were established in different states of the country during the year.
Research Grant Fund (RGF)
Research Grant Fund (RGF) is an important component of the World Bank Forestry Research Extension and Education Project (FREEP). The programme has helped ICFRE to fulfill one of the important national mandate of aiding and coordinating forestry research in India to State forest departments, universities, NGO’s and private sectors.
Projects sanctioned under RGF covers a very wide range of discipline viz., agro-forestry and silviculture, biodiversity conservation, tree improvement, biotechnologies, forest produce, seed technology, biofertilizer, socio-economic and JFM. Many of these projects are coordinated projects. Out of 200 projects sanctioned, 40 projects have been completed. The significant findings of the RGF projects are:
Conducted multi- locational trail, of Poplar under different eco-climatic zone of the country.
Developed agroforestry models in the Tarai region of Nainital.
Completd ethnobotanical studies in the wild plants of Jaunsar and Bhabar for the first time.
Identified two new species of Ochlandra Ochalonra spirostylis and O. sodastromiana
Developed CD-ROM package for the entire 125 years of Indian Forester.
Protocol developed for Chlorophytum borivilianum by using tissue culture technologies.
Developed seed handling techniques for various important forestry species.
Identified No. of Candidate Plus Tree (CPTs) and conducted Tree Improvement trial of Dalbergia sissoo, Populus, Acacia nilotica, Teak, Eucalyptus, Neem and Pine.
Completed Socio-economic and marketing studies in Teak, Eucalyptus, Casuarina and NWFP species.
Identified suitable Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and phosphate solubilizing, microbes for improving the quality of nursery seedling of various forestry species.
Chief Technical Advisors (CTAs)
Twenty one CTAs appointed under the World Bank Project are coordinating research activities of all ICFRE Institutes as well as RGF Projects funded under FREEP. Twenty one CTAs workshops/peer-review meetings were organised on rotation basis in the ICFRE Institutes, where progress of research projects of ICFRE/RGF were reviewed and recommendations made.
Major achievements of the Council and its institutes are as follows:
Forest Research Institute, Dehradun
Development cultivation package for Sailanthes oleracea.
Evolved best clones of Populus deltoids for better growth and wood quality.
Standardised method for extracting dyes from Populus deltoides and Pinus roxburghii.
Evolved methods to compost the plant residue.
Evolved natural resistance of bamboo against termite.
Effective conservation methods were evolved to control nursery disease and plantation.
Borehole technique developed in Florida University were tested and is found to be significant to produce resin without much damage to the tree.
An extra unit "dehumidifier" was evolved for saving drying time than the solar kiln drying.
A new design of bentwood chair using vapour phase ammonia plasticization techniques was evolved.
Suitable species were evolved for mining area with appropriate soil and moisture conservation measure.
List of the species used for handicrafts products and alternative eco-friendly wood were surveyed and recommended to Kerala and Rajasthan to meet the wood demand for raw material.
Methods were developed to modify Tamarind Kernel Powder (TKP) and Cassia tora gum to prepare products of commercial importance, texture and confectionery.
Essential oil was isolated from the needles of Cephalotaxus harringtonii for the first time.
Evolved screening of essential oils from Vitex negundo for its pesticidal activity against Sitotroga cereallela.
Heart wood and resin oil of Shorea robusta were evolved for the first time.
Evolved amerliorative role of tree plantation on soil properties in sodic areas.
Complete tissue culture protocol has been developed for the in-vitro multiplication of Neem using explant for the multiplication of selected CPT for desired traits like high oil yield and high azadirachtin content.
Efficient protocol has been developed for the regeneration of plants with leaf and internode as explant, which has potential use in future genetic transformation studies.
Studies on natural durability and efficacy of preservative for Bamboo completed after 20 years of study and published.
Working quality indices for few forestry species were evaluated to make meaningful comparisons and grouping for user agencies. Data on 85 species are available.
A protocol has been developed for rejuvenation of mature clones, it is possible to obtain half-a-million clonal propagules from one hectare of hedge garden.
Developed a new approach to study comprehensive parasitisation potential of egg parasitoid, Trichogramma poliae.
Identified Copidosoma varicorne to be a promising larval parasitoid of the Dilbergia sissoo.
Successfully evolved dewatering efficiency and brightness improvement form Poplar for paper manufacturing.
Developed Research Database Management System package to provide timber price data on worldwide net.
Methods were standardized to isolate dye from Ageratum conyzoides, Parthenium hysterophorus, Populus deltoides and Eucalptus.
Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore
Standardized the micro-propagation protocols for Eucalyptus hybrid. (E.torelliana x E.citriodora), Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis) and Bambusa arundinaca.
A patent (No. PAT/418-16199108) has been obtained for in-vitro propagation of Oxytenanthera stocksii from National Research Development Council, New Delhi.
Clonal propagation technology for Teak and Neem has been standardized for mass multiplication.
The natural distribution of Artocarpus hirsute, A. integrifolia and A. lakoocha has been studied in the States of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
Eucalyptus camaldulensis was found to be relatively tolerant to salt stress using the rate of photosynthesis as a physiological marker.
Crude anti-fungal proteins obtained from Rauwolfia tetraphylla, Andrographis paniculata and Piper longum were found to totally inhibit the activity against three major forest pathogens, Trichosporium vesiculosm, Macrophomina phaseolina and Aspergillus flavus.
The protocol for successful production of improved planting stock of Teak has been developed which has eliminated the problem of callus formation and increased the production of planting stock by 500 times compared to conventional method (seed route).
Standarized the finger printing methods of Casuarina clones using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat with the assistance of Centre for DNA Finger printing and Diagnostics, Hyderabad.
Fifty one CPTs of Casuarina equisetifolia have been planted at different places in S.India to study their performance and evolve suitable cultivar for environmental plantation.
Suitable tree species for planting in the problem soils like mine dumps were identified and successfully raised in the quartz sand dumps after suitable bio-fertilizer inoculation.
Standardised storage technique for Vateria indica seeds, which is a recalcitrant species, thus the viability of seeds could be increased from one week to about two months.
Methonal and hexane extracts obtained from the leaves and flowers of Acacia nilotica were found to be promising plant derived toxic chemical agents against the Teak defoliators Hyblaea puera and Eutectona machaeralis.
A database of 250 commercially exploitable medicinal plants was created. Cost benefit analysis of cultivating Gloriosa superba was worked out and network established for marketing Gloriosa superba and Mappia foetida and other farm grown medicinal plants for farming community.
Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore
Codification using card key features required for the creation of database for computer assisted timber identification have been completed for 52 genera belonging to six families.
Utilization of lignocellulosic material (wood waste) was studied.
A mechanism was evolved to control extractive leaching in Pterocarpus marcupium.
Yield and composition of oil of new cultivars of Pogostemon patchouli were evaluated.
Wood quality parameter studies for Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus teritocornis have been completed.
Sixteen catamarans made of Bombax ceiba and treated with Copper-Chorme-Arsenic (CCA) were distributed to fisherman in A.P. and Tamil Nadu for field cum demonstration trials.
Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur
A bulletin on ‘Self employment through cultivation of Bach’ is available.
A bulletin on ‘Cultivation of Safed Musli (C.borivillianum) on agricultural lands, an ideal intercrop for idle space in Teak plantation’ is available.
About 250 plant species are documented in ethnobotanical studies that are used by the tribals for various medicinal and other purposes in Central India.
Standardised vegetative propagation method for Neem.
Right doses of insecticides have been calculated for foliar spray to minimize infestation of seed borer of Albizia procera.
Different quantities of egg parasitoid, Trichogramma brasiliensis were introduced in Teak forests to suppress the infestation of Teak leaf skeletonizer. 1.5 lakhs parasitoids/ha is effective to minimize the infestation.
Trichogramma pretiosum was found to be highly effective to suppress the pest population irrespective to their period of release.
Sterilization techniques for the explants i.e. seed and axillary bud in Gmelina arborea has been standardised.
Higher multiplication rate of the shoots of G.arborea has been obtained by using graded doses of cytokinins and other hormones.
Standaradised root trainer seedling production protocol for Albiza procera, Dalbergia sisso and Acacia nilotica.
Rain Forest Research Institute, Jorhat
Documentation of pest associated with forest trees in nurseries, plantations and natural forest of North-East has been completed. It contains various informations on the distinguishing characters, distribution, host plants, nature of damage, damage potential, life-cycle and control measures of the insect pests.
Work on the control of Calopepla leayana using pathogens, parasites and predators has been completed.
Studies on the Microfaunal component of litter ecosystem and their changes in relation of shifting cultivation has been completed.
A total of 60 phyto-pathogenic fungi have been recorded in different forest nurseries, plantation and natural forests of North-East India.
Vegetative propagation of Gmelina arborea through grafting has been standardized through rooting of single nodal cuttings.
A vegetative multiplication garden of Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis with 78 and 58 clones respectively was established along with Clonal Seed Orchards of 70 clones of Gmelina arborea and 50 clones of Tectona grandis.
Individual accession number were assigned to Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Dipterocarpus retusus for the purpose to protect the intellectual property rights of the breeders and the Institute for future breeding programmes.
An integrated management practice for sustainable development of shifting cultivation has been developed to conserve natural resources and upliftment of jhumias.
Standardization of nursery techniques for six Bamboo species of North-East India has been completed and ready for transfer to the users.
Arid Forest Research Institute, Jodhpur
Water stress level of –0.1 to –0.5 Mpa is the best treatment for better growth, biomass production and physiological function of the seedlings of E.camaldulensis, A. nilotica and D.sissoo considering water availability in arid zone.
Application of sewage effluent significantly enhanced the nutrient concentration, uptake and growth and biomass production of E.camaldulensis, A. nilotica and D. sissoo seedlings.
Standardized combination of Calligonum polygonoides and Cenchrus ciliaris is best for fuel wood and fodder production whereas C.polygonoides with Cassia angustifolia was controlling sand drift and fuel wood production.
Calligonum polygonoides provides better conditions for regeneration of C. angustifolia compared to A. tortilis and P. juliflora for habitat restoration.
Exotic shrubs of genus Atriplex popularly known as salt plants performed best on degraded arid salt affected soils.
Survival of planted seedling is the biggest problem in water logged salt affected areas. Two site specific models namely Double ridge mound technique and circular dished mound were evolved to prevent water logging.
Top height model/ site index equation developed for E. camaldulensis and D. sissoo under irrigated conditions area which may be used for assessing the productive capacity.
Selective strain of VAM fungi (Consortium inoculum) for Neem has been prepared for nursery inoculation and field trials.
Concept of Nursery Ecosystem Analysis with emphasis on cultural and quarantine control was evolved for better pest management in forest.
Effective concentrations showed a positive response of Balanites aegypticea against Patalus tecomella.
200 ha of Seed Production Area, 55ha of SSO, 5 ha of VMG and 29 ha of CSO of different tree species have been established in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Shimla
Four types of insect borers viz. Sphaenoptera atterrima, Cryptorhychus rufescens, Platypus biformis and Polygraphus longifolia, were identified, which badly damages the barks and busts and forms a girdle around the affected trees which ultimately lead to their death.
Bio-ecology of Ectropis deodarae-a destructive insect pest of Deodar has been studied in the field and laboratory conditions.
Institute of Forest Productivity, Ranchi
5.5 ha of Eucalyptus Clonal Seed Orchards has been raised at Netaipur under the FSVS, Midnapore.
15.5 ha of Vegetative Multiplication Garden of Bamboo (11.5 ha) and Paulownia fortunei (4 ha) have been established.
60 ha of Seedling Seed Orchards have been created for Eucalyptus species, D.sissoo, G.arborea and Acacia species.
Centre for Forestry Research and Human Resource Development, Chhindwara
Fifth Junior Certificate Course on Nursery and Plantation Technology has been concluded and nine trainees have been trained under human resource development.
Comparative quantitative vegetation analysis and regeneration behaviour of tree species at three sites in tropical dry deciduous Teak forests of South Chhindwara Forest Division has been completed as per the disturbance magnitude.
Centre for Social Forestry and Eco-Rehabilitation, Allahabad
Established effective afforestation model on water logged sodic wasteland.
Socio-economic studies and vegetation types at selected sites for degraded, Silica Mined Area, Salt affected and moisture stress studies for the selected village completed.
Under PSIP, 69 ha SPA of Dalbergia sissoo (30 ha), SSPA of Dalbergia sissoo (20 ha) and Acacia nilotica (10 ha) and three ha CSO of D. sissoo have been established.
Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute, Bangalore
The Institute, an autonomous body of the Ministry has its root in the Co-operative Research Laboratory born in 1962 under the CSIR umbrella with participation of the Indian Plywood Industry. The Institute is mandated to carry out applied research and training on all aspects of technology for manufacturing plywood, panels and other engineered/reconstituted products from lignocellulosic materials.
Research activities of the Institute are commensurate with the action programmes identified in the National Forestry Action Programme 2000, the twenty year comprehensive strategy for development of the forestry in the country. With the changed scenario of availability of woody raw material in the country, the institute has re-oriented its research priorities towards development of reconstituted wood and wood alternates from plantation timbers, bamboo and other renewable fibers. The institute has already established itself as the pioneer R & D organization for development of people friendly and environmentally sound technologies for manufacturing bamboo based industrial products such as Bamboo Mat Board (BMB), Bamboo Mat Veneer Composites (BMVC), Bamboo Mat Moulded Tray (BMMT) and Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheets (BMCS). In recognition of the institutes bamboo related activities a Centre for Bamboo Development was established at the Institute.
Three main areas of research during the year were:
Reconstituted/composites wood from fast growing plantation timbers.
Development of wood alternates from bamboo and their applications.
Technologies for making consumer products from other renewable fibers.
Some important research projects undertaken during the year are :
Assessment of four plantation species from Tamil Nadu for manufacturing plywood under a project sponsored by the Tamil Nadu State Forest department.
Development of finger jointed products like door/window frames and shutters, center tables, cots, diwans, teapoys from fast growing plantation wood including rubber wood and silver oak.
Non-Destructive Test Method for Panel and evolving alternate test method for plywood (IS303) and glue shear strength (IS 844). (In progress).
Improvement of Fire Retardancy of Plywood (In progress).
During the year two Indian patents were applied for –(i) bamboo matchsticks (jointly with INBAR), and (ii) Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheet (Jointly with BMTPC).
Standardization activities through participation at various Committees/Sub-committees of the Bureau of Indian Standards were continued during the year. Advisory service is provided to the BIS on matter related to International Standards on Panel Material made from wood and other lignocellulosics.
Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal
Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM), an autonomous organization of the Ministry has been established to carry out the following mandate.
Forest Management Education
Training for capacity building
Ten research projects in the concerned fields are currently under progress. Details of education and training activities undertaken by the IIFM are given in Chapter 8.
The Wildlife Institute of India (WII) conducts research on the ecological, biological, socio-economic and managerial aspects of wildlife conservation in various parts of the country. The research projects generate valuable scientific data help evolve study techniques relevant to the Indian ground condition, and also create a group of trained field biologists, socio-economists and wildlife managers. The scientific information generated is utilized for management of protected areas. Details of completed and ongoing research projects carried out by WII are as under:
An ecological study of sympatric hornbills and fruiting patterns in a tropical forest in Arunachal Pradesh.
The relationship among large herbivores, habitat, and humans in Rajaji-Corbett National Parks.
Impact of fragmentation on the biological diversity of rain forest small mammals and herpetofauna of the Western Ghats mountains, South India.
Identify potential areas for conserving biodiversity in the Indian Himalayas .
Evaluating Panna National Park with special reference to the ecology of sloth bear.
Establishment of a wildlife forensic capacity at WII
Development of an Indian Co-operative Wildlife Health Programme and Technical Assistance in WII’s wildlife health programme.
Management of forest in India for biological diversity and forest productivity-a new perspective.
Developing and implementing a field research facility and programme in Ladakh, under as tripartite collaborative effort between WII, US Fish and Wildlife Service and International Snow Leopard Trust (WII-USFWS-ISLT).
On-going Research Projects
Planning and development of interpretive facilities in selected Protected Areas in India. Protected Areas : Panna National Park and Corbett National Park
Studies on animal-habitat interactions in the Buffer Zone of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve.
Ecology of tiger : To enable a realistic projection of the requirements needed to maintain a viable population in India
Impact of land use pattern changes on habitat and ecology of Sarus Crane in the Indo-Gangetic flood plain.
Ecology and resource utilization of Hog deer (Axis porcinus) in relation to other sympatric species under various stochastic processes at a landscape level.
Ecology of otters in Corbett Tiger Reserve : Impact of Kalagarh reservoir on the habitat use pattern.
A study on distribution, relative abundance and food habits of leopard (Panthera pardus) in Garhwal Himalayas .
Impact of forest fragmentation on the hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock) in Assam, India.
The ecology of the leopard in Satpura National Park and Bori WLS.
Characterisation of species from bone, tusk, rhino horn and antler to deal with wildlife offence cases.
Social organization and dispersal in Asiatic lions.
A quantitative analysis of incidental sea turtle captures and mortalities during commercial shrimp trawling in the coastal waters of Orissa.
Conservation genetics of marine turtles on the mainland and island coast of India
Developing a Spatial Conservation Protocol for Central Indian Highlands through a Biogeographical Analysis of Birds and Existing Protected Area Network: A Geographical Information System Approach.
Diversity and rarity in floral and avifaunal assemblages in the Western Himalaya : A study of pattern and mechanism to devise viable biodiversity conservation strategies.
Conservation ecology of an isolated population of gaur (Bos gaurus) in Trishna WLS, Tripura.
Ecology of the Dhole (Cuon alpinus Pallas) in Central India.
An ecological reconnaissance of colonial nesting birds in Bhitarkanika mangroves, Orissa, India.
An evaluation of the endemism of the amphibian assemblages from the Western Ghats using molecular techniques.
States and ecology of leopard in Pauri Garhwal. Phase-II : Ranging patterns and reproductive biology of leopard (Panthera pardus) and reproductive biology of leopard (Panthera pardus) in Pauri Garhwal Himalayas.
Conservation of Indian wolf.
National Natural Resource Management System
The main objective of National Natural Resource Management System (NNRMS) is utilization of remote sensing technology with conventional methods of monitoring of natural resources such as land, water, forests, minerals, oceans etc. for attaining sustainable development by addressing the following aspects :
Optimal utilization of the country’s natural resources by a proper and systematic inventory of the resource availability.
Reducing regional imbalances by effective planning and in tune with the developmental efforts.
Maintain the ecological balance with a view to evolve and implement the environmental guidelines.
The Standing Committee on Bio-resources and Environment (SC-B) constituted by the Planning Commission advises on the methods of using the remote sensing technology for optimal use and management of natural resource in the country.
The SC-B had identified 49 priority areas for taking up remote sensing based studies in tune with key environmental and ecological issues of the country. They encompassed forest, grassland, plant and faunal resources, wetlands, land degradation, water and air pollution etc. information requirements for the Man and Biosphere Reserve Programme and some typical areas like mining, coastal areas, wildlife habitats etc. Out of the above 49 priority areas, more than 20 have been covered so far.
So far SC-B has met 17 times and sponsored more than 60 remote sensing application projects addressing key environmental and ecological issues such as management of forests, grassland, faunal resources, wetland, coastal areas, mangroves and coral resources, land degradation, impact of mining and industrialization, river pollution etc. Thirty two projects have so far been completed, the details of this project are given in Annexure - IV and remaining projects are in progress. List of projects sanctioned during 2001-2002 is at Annexure- III. The 4th meeting of the Technical and Financial Sub-Committee of the NNRMS (SC-B) held in Dec, 2001considered 16 new proposals for their suitability from technical and financial angle.
The potential user agencies for utilizing the outcome/information generated in the projects sanctioned by the Ministry under NNRMS programme are the Central Govt. Departments/agencies, Public Sector Undertakings, State Govt. Departments/agencies, and the Ministry of Environment and Forests itself including the various organizations under its administrative control like FSI, ZSI, BSI etc.