[Botanical Survey of India, Zoological Survey of India, Forest Survey of India]


Survey of Flora

Botanical Survey of India (BSI)

Botanical Survey of India (BSI) is a premier institute under the Ministry with head quarter at Kolkata and Circle/Field offices at nine centers in the Country.


Primary objectives


Fig 1. Epigenium amplum - an orchid of floricultural potential

Secondary Objectives :



Fig 2. Erinocarpus nimmonii - an endemic plant species

Highlights of the major activities carried out by the BSI during the year are as follows :


Fig 3. Sophora mollis - a threatened legume of North Western Himalaya

Botanical Exploration and Inventorisation of Phytodiversity

More than 74 exploration / collection tours were undertaken by circle offices and units of Botanical Survey of India in different districts of different states, in protected areas, sanctuaries, fragile ecosystems including wetlands of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Uttaranchal, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. More than 11,505 specimens have been collected including lower groups of plants viz. algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes and pteridophytes and 6,205 specimens were identified. 42 specimens inventorised by different offices/unit of the BSI.



Fig 4. Catleya spp. - an ornamental orchid

Documentation of Phytodiversity


Fig 5. Rhynchostylis retusa - Orchid in WII Campus

New Species Discovered :



Fig 6. Hedyotis purpurascenes - endemic to South Western Ghats


Three hundred and sixty five species were collected for ex-situ multiplication of rare, endangered, wild relatives of ornamentals medicinally important plants in different Gardens of Botanical Survey of India and 213 species have been multiplied.



Fig 7. Brachycorythis iantha - an endemic orchid to Western Ghats


Different circles/units of the BSI have mounted 5,216 specimens and remounted 986 specimens. Stitching, label pasting etc have been done of 8,259 specimens, 3499 specimens were identified, 4369 specimens incorporated in different herbaria of Botanical Survey of India. 779 specimens were sent on loan and 239 specimens were received on exchange, 241 type photographs received from Kew.



Fig 8. An endemic orchid (Cymbidium ensiflorum) - South Western Ghats

Studies on Cytology/Palynology/Plant Physiology/Ethnobotany/Pharmacognosy



Fig 10. A rare ornamental flower (Meconopsis robusta) of the Central Himalayas




Fig 13. Anaphyllum wightii - endemic to South Western Ghats


The following publications were published by the BSI during the year:


Survey of Fauna

Zoological Survey of India

The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), a premier institute under the Ministry of Environment and Forests, has been undertaking survey, exploration and research leading to the advancement of our knowledge on the exceptionally rich faunal diversity of the country since its inception in 1916. With its Headquarters at Kolkata and sixteen Regional Stations located in different parts of the country, ZSI in recent years, has reoriented its plan of work by grouping the survey and studies under five major programmes, viz. 1) Fauna of States, 2) Fauna of Conservation areas, 3) Fauna of Important Ecosystems, 4) Status Survey of endangered species and 5) Ecological Studies. Besides these, the ongoing Fauna of India programme was also continued.


Fig 15. Lion tailed Macaque - an endangered species

Seventy seven extensive faunal surveys were undertaken to different States/UTs including important ecosystems and some selected conservation/protected areas. Besides these, several short duration intensive surveys for ecological and bio-monitoring studies were also undertaken. Detailed taxonomic studies were carried out on the material collected during these as well as earlier surveys. Ecological studies including status survey of endangered animals was covered under no fewer than six projects. Besides, studies on seven other projects, which included one revisionary study, were also continued.

The National Zoological collection was further enriched by the addition of 17,614 specimens belonging to 1,659 species including 40 species new to science.

Besides, identification and advisory services to 199 individuals or institutions in India and abroad, two training courses under training and extension programme were also undertaken by the ZSI.

Publications brought out during the year include four issues of volume 99 of the periodical ‘Record of ZSI, two ‘Occasional Papers’, one Volume of Bibliography of Indian Zoology’ and five volumes under ‘Fauna of States’ series.


Highlights of the major activities during the year are as follows :

Faunal Explorations and Surveys

Ecosystems :

Tropical Rainforest

Surveys were conducted in mangroves of Kolavipalam, Kerala.


Ladakh Cold Desert-two extensive surveys were conducted in Ladakh Cold Desert areas.

Wetlands :

Nalsarovar, Gujarat, Gobind Sagar Dam, Crater Lake, Maharashtra, Wetlands of Chakrata Hills, Siwalik and Subernrekha River, Jharkhand were some important wetlands surveyed during the year.

Esturaine :

Vansadhra-Nagavali estuary in Andhra Pradesh was surveyed.

Marine :

Surveys were conducted in Gulf of Kutchch and coastal areas of middle A&N Islands and West Bengal.



Fig 16. An intermediate Egret (Mesophyox)

Conservation Area :

Surveys were conducted for the faunal diversity in the following National Parks


Fig 17. Flamingoes - a rosy white stork like bird with heavy bill

Biosphere Reserve :

Gulf of Mannar and Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserves were further surveyed.

Tiger Reserve :

Pench Tiger Reserve was surveyed for its faunal diversity during the year.

Wildlife Sanctuaries :

Bethuadahari, West Bengal wildlife Sanctuary was surveyed during the year.

States and Union Territories :

Under this programme surveys were conducted in several districts of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Goa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal, U.P. and West Bengal.

Ecological Surveys :


Research Work

Identification of New Taxa :

Detailed taxonomic studies carried out during the year resulted in the discovery of a total of 40 species and one genus.

Arthropoda : Insecta : Hemiptera 1 Genus, 1 species

Arthropoda : Insecta: Diptera: Chloropidae2 species

Arthropoda : Insecta : Hymenoptera : Chalcidoidea2 species

Arthropoda: Insecta : Dermaptera25 species

Arthropoda : Arachnida 4 species

Arthropoda : Arachnids : Acarina 6 species

Taxonomic Studies :

The research works carried out on fauna collected from different States, conservation areas and other ecosystems are as follows :


Fauna of India :

The following volumes are being finalized for publication


Fauna of States:

Details of number of specimens collected and species identified (in parentheses) based on the collections made from different states are given in Table-1.

Table - 1

Major Groups of Animals Collected

(Total number of specimens and species in parenthesis)

States surveyed		Porifera	Bryozoa		Annelida	Nematoda	Thysonoptera	Apterygota	Odonata		Isoptera	Hemiptera	Hymeroptera	Lepidoptera
Andaman & Nicobar Is.	45(3)		—		—		80(8)		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Andhra Pradesh		—		—		6(2)		—		58(8)		—		—		200(4)		—		—		—
Arunachal Pradesh	—		—		59(9)		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—	
Assam			—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Goa			—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Gujarat			—		—		137(7)		—		—		—		—		—		—		44(6)		—
Himachal Pradesh	—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—	
Karnataka		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		20 (vials)	—		—		—
Kerala			—		—		53(1)		—		—		20(6)		—		—		—		16(6)		186(12)
Madhya Pradesh		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		6(3)		—		1(1)
Maharashtra		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Manipur			—		—		—		—		—		—		—		25 (vials)	—		—		—
Megalaya		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Mizoram			—		—		65(12)		—		—		—		—		100(2)		—		—		—
Nagaland		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Pondicherry		—		—		—		—		—		—		28(5)		—		—		8(3)		—
Rajasthan		—		—		—		Seceral (13)	—		—		—		12 vials (8)	—		several (4)	—
Tamil Nadu		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Uttar Pradesh		—		64(4)		—		—		—		—		215(31)		—		12(5)		—		93(12)

States surveyed		Coleoptera	Orthoptera	Myriapoda	Arachnids	Acrina		Crustacea	Pisces		Amphibia	Reptilia	Mammalia
Andaman & Nicobar Is.	19(5)		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Andhra Pradesh		258(8)		97(12)		—		—		—		285(44)		—		—		—		—
Arunachal Pradesh	—		103(14)		—		350(58)		12(2)		—		—		—		—		—
Assam			—		—		—		—		—		—		—		28(3)		—		—
Goa			—		—		—		—		—		20(5)		—		—		—		—
Gujarat			—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Himachal Pradesh	—		—		—		—		—		—		14(3)		—		—		13(3)
Karnataka		—		—		—		—		—		—		2845(98)	148(10)		—		—
Kerala			—		—		4(3)		7(3)		—		144(24)		195(10)		—		—		—
Madhya Pradesh		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		150(11)		30(19)		—
Maharashtra		—		—		15(7)		—		—		—		—		—		—		3(1)
Manipur			244(23)		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Megalaya		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		11(1)		—		—
Mizoram			—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Nagaland		—		—		—		—		—		—		301(48)		—		—		—
Pondicherry		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Rajasthan		—		100(22)		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Tamil Nadu		—		—		—		—		—		99(9)		114(14)		—		—		—
Uttar Pradesh		—		—		—		—		—		821(7)		364(31)		—		—		—


Fauna of Conservation Areas :

Biosphere Reserves

Pachmarhi, Madhya Pradesh

Six examples under four species of Odonata, 15 examples belonging to 10 species of Lepidoptera and 25 examples pertaining to two species of Acarina were examined.


National Parks :

Ranthambore, Rajasthan

Eighteen examples belonging to four species of Coleptera, and two vials containing two species of Isoptera, 49 examples belonging to 23 species of Lepidoptera were studied and identified.

Pench, Maharashtra

Seventy examples pertaining to 16 species of Mollusca, 71 examples belonging to 18 species of Thysanoptera, and four examples under one speices of Chilopoda collected from this park were studied.

Tadoba, Maharashtra

Two examples belonging to one species of Mollusca, and 42 examples under 13 species of Crustacea : Cladocera were studied and classified.

Panna, Madhya Pradesh

One forty five examples pertaining to 37 species of Lepidoptera were identified.



Fig 18. Tiger - Our National Animal

Tiger Reserves

Melghat, Maharashtra

Four examples belonging to four species of Diptera, one example belonging to one species of Lepidoptera, 18 examples belonging to eight species of Pisces were recognised.

Agasthyamalai, Tamil Nadu

One hundred and eleven examples belonging to 28 species of Hemiptera were identified and the studies on this group were concluded.



Fig 19. Blue bull, commonly known as Nilgai

Wild life Sanctuaries :

Kaimur, Bihar

Twenty two species of Reptilia, 107 species of Apes and 48 species of Mammalia were identified from this sanctuary.

Billigiri Rangaswamy, Karnataka

Seven examples pertaining to three species of Arachnida and 76 examples belonging to eight species of Pisces were studied and identified.

Parambikulam, Kerala

Studies in this sanctuary were completed and the manuscript is being finalized.

Dalma, Bihar

Field observation on Tetrapods of this sanctuary were carried out.

Bethuadahari, West Bengal

Seventy two examples belonging to 4 species of Annelida were identified.

Asola Bhatti, Delhi

One hundred and twenty six examples pertaining to four species of Centepede were studied and identified.



Fig 20. Barasingha - needs protection from poachers

Fauna of important ecosystems

Tropical Rainforest :

Western Ghat, Kerala

Three hundred and twenty eight examples belonging to 55 species of Odanata, 148 examples pertaining to 57 species of Hymenoptera and 338 examples under 45 species of Pisces collected from different districts were studied and identified.


Fresh Waters :

Nalsarovar, Gujarat

Twenty five examples belonging to three species of Diptera were identified.

Nathsagar, Maharashtra

Nine examples under three species of Crustacea were identified.

Keoladeo, Ghana, Rajasthan

Thirty examples pertaining to three species of Mollusca, 50 examples belonging to 16 species of Odanata and 16 examples of four species of Lepidoptera were identified.

Subernrekha River, Jharkhand

One hundred and thirty two examples pertaining to 22 species of Pisces were identified.

Wetlands of Siwalik region, Uttaranchal

Sixty six examples comprising of nine species of Pisces were studied.



Fig 21. An endangered and endemic Tahr (hemitragus hylocrius) of Southern Western Ghats

Estuarine :

Krishna Estuary

Forty nine examples comprising of 14 species of Polychaeta, 548 examples belonging to 108 species of Mollusca, 527 examples pertaining to 38 species of Crustacea : Decapoda and 990 examples comprising of 187 species of Pisces were identified.


Marine :

Andaman and Nicobar

The studies on Echinodermata Fauna have been completed

Andhra Coast

Five examples pertaining to five species of Mollusca were identified

Chennai Coast

Nine examples comprising of three species of Crustacea : Decapoda : Brachyura were identified

Kerala Coast

Twelve example pertaining to eight species of Pisces were studied and identified.

West Bengal (Digha) Coast

Sixty-nine examples belonging to 19 species of Polychaeta : Annelida were studied and identified.


Ecological Studies :

Work has been continued on the following project :

Revisionary Studies :

Revision of the families Coengrionidae and Platycenmidae (Pisces) was made.

Other Studies :


Fig 22. Bar Headed Goose

Research Papers :

During the years, a total a 240 research papers were either published or sent for publication by the scientists of ZSI.

Advisory Services :

The ZSI continued to render identification and advisory services free of cost to research and teaching institutes in India and abroad, Central and State Government/Agencies, Non-governmental organisations, industries and individuals on zoological matters. During the year, 199 enquiries pertaining to different group of faunas were attended.

Development of National Zoological Collection

The ZSI, which is a national repository of Zoological specimens, maintains the collection of a large number of identified examples of species belonging to almost all groups of animals of the country. The National Zoological Collection was further enriched by 17,614 examples belonging to 1,659 species including 40 new species.

Training Programme

The following training programmes were conducted during the year:

Leadership course on environmental awareness and wildlife conservation.

Training course on collection, preservation and identification of Zoological specimens at the ZSI, Eastern Regional Station, Shillong.

Publications :

The following publications were released during the year by the ZSI :

Database Development

The Database on National Zoological Collection encompassing all groups (Protozoa to Mammalia) was developed in the ZSI headquarter. During the period, following entries were made

Other Activities


Forest Survey of India


Forest Survey of India (FSI), an organization of Ministry is engaged in generating information and database development on forest cover and forest resources in the country besides providing services of training, research and extension. The mandate of the FSI, established in June, 1981 was redefined in 1986 with the following objectives :

The Forest Survey of India with its head quarter at Dehra Dun and four zones located at Shimla (North Zone ), Kolkata (East Zone), Nagpur (Central zone) and Bangalore (South Zone) are largely carrying out inventory of forest resources inside and outside forest areas. During the year, infrastructure of these offices have been strengthened for carrying out digital image processing activities.

Activities undertaken by the FSI during the year are as follows :



Fig 23. Blue Mountain, National Park, Mizoram

Forest Cover Assessment

The FSI has been assessing the forest cover of the country using satellite imagery on two years cycle. First assessment was made in 1987 by visual interpretation of Land-sat MSS satellite data on 1:1 million scale having 80 meters resolutions. Subsequently three assessments, done in 1989, 1991, and 1993 by visual interpretation of Land-sat TM satellite date on 1:250,000 scale having 30 meter resolution. Thereafter, fifth and sixth assessments were made in 1995 and 1997 using IRS-1B, LISS IIth data on 1:250,000 scale having resolution 36.25 m. During fifth and sixth assessments interpretation of data for Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra State has been done digitally and for rest of the State/UTs it has been done visually. The seventh assessment was made in 1999 using IRS-1B, 1C and 1D data on 1:250,000 scale. The resolution of IRS-1B-(LISS II) sensor in 36.25m whereas IRS-1C and 1D (LISS III) is 23.5 m. In seventh assessment digital method of interpretation has been used for Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi (UT), Sikkim and for the North-eastern states which comprises 63% of the forest cover of the country. The eighth assessment, which is scheduled to be completed in March 2002, is under progress and is completely based on digital interpretation of satellite data.

The country is covered by 363 Survey of India (SOI) toposheets on 1: 250,000 scale. Target of the work of interpretation for one year covers about half of the country. During 2000-2001 the interpretation of 182 sheets pertaining to Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Haryana, Punjab, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, A&N Islands and North Eastern states has been completed. For the purpose of map composition, digitization of the features like district boundary, roads, railway lines, rivers etc. to be overlayed on the forest cover maps was also undertaken. The interpretation of the rest of the country has been done during 2001-2002. Ground truthing of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and a part of Orissa has been completed. An extensive ground truthing programme has been formulated to cover the rest of the states.

Apart from regular activities, special studies for assessment of changes in the vegetation status of seven Biosphere Reserves, seven tiger reserves, three National Parks and three wildlife sanctuaries have also been done. Besides, FSI has undertaken one project of Mizoram Forest Department for providing assistance in preparation of working plan with the application of Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. A methodology is being standardized for assessing growing stock by stratifying forest area into homogenous strata. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS has been made in creating different layers of information like forest cover, administrative boundaries, roads, forest boundaries, compartments etc. With the help of spatial data base, thematic maps have been generated and stratification has been carried out.


Thematic Mapping

Preparation of thematic maps based on interpretation of Aerial photographs is an important activity of FSI. Aerial photographs procured from Survey of India are interpreted using Stereoscopes. After intensive ground verification corrections are incorporated in the interpreted aerial photographs. These photographs are sent to SOI for transference of interpreted details on base maps on 1:50,000 scale and for preparation of thematic maps. Thematic maps depict forest types, major species composition, crown density of forest cover and other land use classes. They depict as many as 48 forest types and 14 other categories of land uses. These maps are used by various State Forest Departments for updating stock maps, working plan preparations, management of forest resources and land use planning. These are also indented by railways, engineering, educational, mining and other establishments for their general planning and programme execution. Each year about 5200 aerial photographs corresponding to 260 SOI toposheets on 1: 50,000 scale are interpreted for generation of Thematic Maps. Thematic mapping has covered about 75% of the forested area of the country. Due to non-availability of the latest aerial photographs in time the thematic mapping works has been scaled down to 50 sheets per year since 1999-2000. During the year 50 sheets pertaining to Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa state has been taken in target for interpretation.


Forest Inventory

During the year following forest inventory reports were published:

Forest Inventory report of Ranchi, Gumla and Lohardaga and undivided Sighbhum and Santhal Pargana of Jharkhand State and Banka and Bhagalpur district of Bihar State and Sundergarh district of West Bengal State were also published.

Wood consumption report of Shahdol, Narsingpur, Sidhi and Chhindwara districts of Madhya Pradesh and Amravati, Wardha, Nagpur, Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg and Ahmednagar districts of Maharashtra state were also published.



Fig 24. Srisailam Forests

Inventory of Trees outside Forest

Keeping in view the important role played by forestry plantations and to assess the impact of Social Forestry and other forestry extension programmes in meeting fuel-wood and timber needs of the people and raw material requirements of the wood based industries, survey of plantation outside conventional forest has also been initiated by Forest Survey of India. The survey of TOF has been completed in Haryana. Similar surveys have been initiated in other states also. During the year, 26,962 sq.km. in Maharashtra, 3,358 sq.km. in Gujarat, 264 sq.km. in West Bengal, 11,870 sq.km. in Bihar, 2300 sq.km. in Rajasthan and 48,000 sq.km. in Andhra Pradesh of National Forest Area (NFA) have been surveyed so far. Thus the total NFA surveyed (upto October, 2001) is 92,754 sq.km. Proposals have been also submitted for Punjab, Delhi and Karnataka State for TOF surveys to respective State Forest Departments. During the year, TOF reports in respect of Haryana, Bangalore, rural of Karnataka State, Sambalpur, Balasore, Mayurbhanj of Orissa State, Mathura, Farrukabad of Uttar Pradesh, Midnapore of West Bengal State and Betul district of Madhya Pradesh have been published.


The FSI organises training programmes for forestry personnel on various aspects such as applications of remoting sensing techniques in forestry (Details of its activities are given in Chapter 8).

Electronic Data Processing

The objective of the Electronic Data Processing Unit is to provide qualitative and quantitative information about the forest resources of the country, within and outside the forest. During the year 34,097 sq. km of Maharashtra State, 25,697 sq. km of Gujarat State and 7,000 sq. km of West Bengal State has been processed. The total area processed so far is 66,794 Sq.km.


State of Forest Report

The State Forest Reports, which are published biennially, provide a comprehensive account of the forest cover scenario of the country to different user groups. The inventory reports and wood consumption studies, which are taken up for specific forest/non-forest areas, furnishes valuable information on growing stock, status of regeneration, incidence of grazing, incidence of fire etc. and are largely used by State Forest Departments. They are of great importance for policy, planners, managers, researchers and academicians etc.

The draft SFR 2001, the 8th in the series, is being finalized during the year. Besides, 19 technical reports comprising eight reports on Forest inventory, five on tree outside forest (TOF) inventory and six on wood consumption studies have also been published during the year.


Infrastructure Development

National Forest Data Management Centre (NFDMC) is engaged in Forest Cover Mapping and special projects using state-of-art computer hardware and softwares. NFDMC has 3 Sun Ultra 60, One Sun Spark and 2 Intergraph Workstations equipped with ERDAS IMAGINE 8.4 with Vector module for Digital Image Processing. For GIS, map publication and photogrammetry related works, center has Intergraph machine based Digital Cartography System consisting of Servers, Graphic Edit Workstations, Image Stations and Map Setter.

Involvement with NSDI and Launching of Website

FSI is part of national initiative on creation of National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). The NSDI aims to promote and establish an infrastructure for organized spatial and non-spatial data and multilevel information networking to fulfill local, national and global needs for data. FSI will function as focal organization in NSDI framework for compilation, storage and dissemination of forest maps and forestry data.

In order to provide information on country’s forest resources i.e. Forest cover and Growing stock, FSI has launched its website "www.fsiorg.net" during the year.

Special Studies

The organization, while retaining its primary role of forest resources assessment, has also been carrying out special studies on subjects of contemporary importance from time to time. Some of the special studies undertaken are as follows:

Promotion of Hindi

During 2001-2002 measure were ensured to enhance the pace of implementation of official language policy in FSI. Besides regular appraisal of different units/regional offices of FSI ensured through quarterly meetings, encouragement of noting and drafting in Hindi. To facilitate typing in Hindi "Hindi Software" has been installed in many office computers. Various programmes and activities related to promotion of Hindi were undertaken by the FSI during the year.


The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Forests and Plantation Development Corporation Ltd., Port Blair

The Andaman & Nicobar Islands Forest and Plantation Development Corporation Ltd., a Government of India undertaking has an authorized capital of Rs. 600 lakhs. The paid up share capital is Rs. 359.18 lakhs, all the share capital being held by the Central Government. The Company started functioning in 1977 and is a category ‘C’ Central Public Sector Undertaking. The corporation has also financed its capital from the resources generated internally.

The main activities of the Corporation during the year were timber logging and regeneration, oil palm cultivation and processing and commercial management of rubber plantation. The Corporation is also in the process to diversify its activities wherever possible within the ambit of its objectives.

On 10th October, 2001, Hon’ble Supreme Court has issued an order in Civil Writ No. 202/1995 putting complete ban on felling of all naturally grown trees except plantation in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which has resulted in complete standstill of activities in the Corporation.