2

SURVEY OF NATURAL RESOURCES

[Botanical Survey of India, Zoological Survey of India, Forest Survey of India]


Index


Survey of Flora

Botanical Survey of India (BSI)

Introduction

Botanical Survey of India (BSI) is a subordinate office of the Ministry with Headquarter at Kolkata and Circle/ Field offices at nine centres in the country. The primary and secondary objectives of the BSI are:

Index

Primary objectives

Index

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Fig 1. A rare orchid of north-eastern region, commonly known as Lady’s Slipper

Secondary objectives

The activities carried out by the BSI during the year are as follows:

Index

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Fig 2. Red sanders (Pterocarpus santalinus L.f.) - endemic to Eastern Ghats

Botanical exploration and inventorisation of phytodiversity

More than 79 exploration/collection tours were undertaken by various circle offices and units of Botanical Survey of India in different priority areas, sanctuaries, hotpots, fragile ecosystems of North Eastern India, Sikkim, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, South Western Ghats, Western Himalayas, (Ladhak, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Garhwal Himalayas) Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. More than 14,679 specimen, 6 soil samples, 25 water samples 5 litter samples have been collected, 1880 specimens were identified and about 121 specimen have been inventorised by different offices/ units of Botanical Survey of India.

Index

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Fig 3. The endemic and rare pitcher plant (Nepenthes khasiana Hook. f.) of North-Eastern region

Documentation of Phytodiversity

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Fig 4. The giant lily (Victoria amazonica) at Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah

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Fig 5. Taxus baccata being exploited for anti-cancer drug

Index

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Fig 6. Nypa fexiticans - a potential oil yielding species in Sundarban

Conservation

Total four tours were undertaken and about 155 specimens were collected. Forty-two rare and wild relatives of ornamental and economic species were collected for conservation and multiplication in Indian Botanic Garden. Population studies of rare and threatened species to determine the status of taxa as per IUCN categories were completed. Ex- situ conservation of 340 plants comprising about 93 rare and threatened species have been done by multiplication at different experimental Botanic Gardens of various offices of Botanical Survey of India as follows :

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Fig 7. Eria andamanica Hook f. - an endemic epithytic orchid of Andamans

Index

Cytological studies/Palaenological studies/Botanical Gallery/Plant Physiology/ Ethnobotany/Pharmacognosy

Index

Bioperspective assessment of Phytodiversity

Four collection tours were undertaken and over 800 specimens of wild plants of economic and medicinal value were collected. Phytochemical screening of 14 species of mangrove plants of West Bengal and Orissa and that of three species of Menispermaceae were undertaken. Phytochemical screening of 4 species of Rubiaceae were also completed. Isolation of Flavonoids from Bauhinia species and its contribution to chemotaxonomy of the family Leguminosae were undertaken. About 65 museum exhibits were collected from different parts of Orissa and West Bengal.

Index

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Fig 8. Marshy herb (Lagenandra ovata L.) – endemic to Western Ghats

Herbarium and Library

Mounting, stitching and label pasting of about 13,553 specimens have been done by different offices / Units of Botanical Survey of India. About 5783 specimens were identified and 3911 specimens were accessioned. 4329 specimens were indexed and about 7669 specimens were incorporated in the Herbarium of various offices of BSI. 271 illustrations were prepared, 328 books and 340 journals were purchased / accessioned in the various offices of the BSI during the year.

Index

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Fig 9. An epiphyte (Licopodium) growing on the tree

Publication

The following publication were published during the year :

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Fig 10. Rhododendron arboreum - the rose tree in Darjeeling

Index

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Fig 11. Senecio alatus R. at higher reaches of Western Himalayas

Miscellaneous

A National database has been developed and is being regularly updated at BSI- Northern Circle, Dehra Dun; Southern Circle, Coimbatore and BSI, Calcutta (ENVIS- Centre) relating to medicinal plants, type collection and rare and threatened species.

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Fig 12. Capparis cartilagenea - a rare species in Saurashtra and Kutchch, Gujarat

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Fig 13. Monstera in flower

Index

Survey of Fauna

Zoological Survey of India

Introduction

The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) a premier institute under the Ministry is committed to undertake survey exploration and research leading to the advancement of knowledge in various aspects of the exceptionally rich faunal diversity of the country. It has been constantly and tirelessly pursuing its objectives since its inception in 1916. During recent years, the ratification of the Biodiversity Convention by India, has tremendously increased both its responsibility and importance nationally as well as globally.

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Fig 14. Demoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo), visit western India in large numbers

Realising the current national and international demand for charting the vast faunal diversity of the country, ZSI has renewed its vigor and reoriented its plan of work by grouping its survey, exploration and studies under five major programmes, viz.1) Fauna of States,2) Fauna of Conservation areas 3) Fauna of important ecosystems, 4) Status Survey of Endangered species and 5) Ecological Studies. Besides these, Fauna of India Programme also continued.

The ZSI with its headquarter in Calcutta and other 16 Regional Stations located through out the country continued to concentrate mainly on the detailed taxonomic studies on different faunal groups under Fauna of States programme. Fauna of Conservation areas like Biosphere Reserves, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries and important ecosystems like wetlands, tropical rainforests, high altitudes, desert, estuarine, coastal and marine etc.

Altogether 72 extensive faunal surveys were undertaken in different States/UT’s including important ecosystems and conservation areas, besides several short duration intensive surveys for ecological and biomonitoring studies. Detailed taxonomic studies were carried out on the material collected during these as well as earlier surveys. Ecological and other studies including status survey of endangered animals were covered under seven projects.

The National Zoological collection was further enriched by the addition of 20,163 specimens belonging to 1657 species including 16 species new to science.

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Fig 15. Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) - a rosy white stork like bird with a heavy bill

In addition, Identification and Advisory services were rendered to 191 individuals or institutions in India and abroad. One Environmental Impact Study was also carried out.

Two important training courses were organised under Training and Extension Programme.

Publication brought out during the year includes 4 volumes of the periodical Records of ZSI’, 10 Occasional Papers, one Volume of Bibliography of Indian Zoology and 5 Volumes under Fauna of States series.

Details of activities undertaken during the year are as follows:

Index

Faunal Explorations and Surveys

Ecosystems

Tropical Rainforest

Surveys were conducted in Ernakulum district of Kerala

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Fig 16. Ibex at Pin Valley National Park

Siwaliks

Siwalik hills of Punjab and Western U.P. were surveyed.

Wetlands

Nal Sarovar (Gujarat), Jaikwadi and Nathsagar (Maharastra), wetlands of Keoladeo Ghana N.P. (Rajasthan) and some streams of Chakrata in Siwaliks were important wetlands surveyed during the year.

Estuarine

Krishna estuary in Andhra Pradesh was further surveyed.

Index

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Fig 17. The Atlas moth (Attacus attas) at Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary, Pune

Conservation Area

National Parks

Survey were conducted for the faunal diversity in Ranthambore National Park, Rajasthan and Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Maharashtra.

Biosphere Reserves

Gulf of Mannar and Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserves were surveyed during the period.

Wildlife Sanctuaries

Biligiri Rangaswamy, Karnataka; Dalma, Bihar and Saipung, Meghalaya were surveyed.

Index

States and Union Territories

Under this programme surveys were conducted in Andhra Pradesh (Karim Nagar, Khammam), Assam (North Cachar Hills), Bihar (East Sighbhum, Giridih), Karnataka (Mysore, Chamrajnagar), Kerala, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh (Jabalpur, Mandla, Shahdol), Nagaland, Rajasthan (Sirohi, Udaipur, Durgapur, Banswara, Chittorgarh), Tamil Nadu (Chinglepet, Varudhunagar) and Uttar Pradesh (Dehra Dun).

Index

Ecological Surveys

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Research Work

Identification of New Taxa

Detailed taxonomic studies carried out during the year resulted in the discovery of a total of 13 species of Insecta: Diptera; 1 species of Insecta : Hymenoptera and 2 species of Nematoda.

Taxonomic Studies

The research works carried out on fauna collected from different States, conservation areas and other ecosystem are as follows :

Index

Fauna of India

Chloropidae: Diptera;

During the year studies on the genera Meijerella, Incertela, Vanchium, Polydapsis and Aphanatrigonum were continued.

Index

Fauna of States

Details of number of specimens and species identified, based on the collection made from different states are given in Table-1.

Table - 1

Major Groups of Animals Collected

(Total number of specimens and species in parenthesis)

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States surveyed		Protozoa	Rotifera	Nematoda	Apterigota	Odonata		Isoptera	Hemiptera	Hymenoptera	Lepidoptera	Coleoptera
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Andaman & Nicobar Is.	40(6)		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		9(1)
Andhra Pradesh		—		—		—		—		85(18)		700(16)		86(29)		—		—		—
Arunachal Pradesh	—		—		—		152(9)		—		—		—		—		—		—
Gujarat			—		—		16(5)		—		—		—		—		300(12)		9(1)		—
Karnataka		—		13(3)		—		70(7)		—		—		—		—		—		—
Madhya Pradesh		—		—		—		20(4)		—		100(2)		—		—		5(5)		—
Manipur			—		—		—		25(8)		—		—		112(6)		—		—		350(61)
Mizoram			—		—		—		86(18)		—		190(61)		105(21)		—		—		—
Nagaland		—		—		—		52(2)		—		—		—		186(55)		186(55)		—
Rajasthan		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		9(1)
Tamil Nadu		—		12(2)		—		—		—		—		20(7)		—		—		—
Tripura			—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		104(56)		—
Uttar Pradesh		—		—		—		—		—		—		51(18)		—		—		—
West Bengal		—		—		—		54(6)		—		—		—		—		—		—
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States surveyed		Orthoptera	Trichoptera	Acarina		Crustacea	Chilopoda	Mollusca	Pisces		Amphibia	Reptilia	Mammalia
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Andaman & Nicobar Is.	284(46)		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Andhra Pradesh		74(13)		—		—		141(23)		—		247(42)		—		—		—		—
Arunachal Pradesh	30(4)		—		36(3)		792(16)		—		—		834(45)		248(24)		—		—
Assam			—		—		—		—		—		—		2000(25)	158(5)		—		—
Bihar			—		—		—		—		—		63(2)		—		—		—		—
Himachal Pradesh	85(13)		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Karnataka		—		—		—		62(11)		—		—		3775(65)	47(7)		—		—
Kerala			—		—		—		—		—		—		15(8)		—		—		—
Madhya Pradesh		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		904(15)		—		—
Maharashtra		—		—		—		—		84(12)		—		—		—		—		—
Meghalaya		—		—		—		—		—		—		—		7(4)		—		—
Mizoram			270(27)		—		70(6)		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
Nagaland		260(26)		—		25(4)		31(6)		—		—		380(48)		57(8)		—		—
Tamil Nadu		—		10(5)		31(6)		—		94(6)		—		918(41)		—		237(48)		22(4)
Uttar Pradesh		—		—		—		33(3)		—		—		—		—		—		—
West Bengal		—		—		45(9)		—		—		—		—		—		—		—
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Index

Fauna of Conservation Areas

National Parks

Pench, Maharashtra: Thirty six examples belonging to six species of Myriapoda (Chilopoda: Scolopendridae), 61 examples pertaining to 18 species of Hymenoptera, 15 examples of 5 species of Lepidoptera, 20 examples comprising of 6 species of Crustacea, 6 examples of 3 species of Mollusca, 31 examples consisting of 7 species of Reptilia and 5 examples of one species of Mammilia were studied and identified.

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Fig 17. The Atlas moth (Attacus attas) at Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary, Pune

Tadoba, Maharshtra: Fifteen examples under 6 species of Mollusca, 31 examples pertaining to 6 species of Crustacea and 5 examples comprising of 2 species of Reptilia were identified.

Sanjay Gandhi, Maharshtra: Eight species belonging to 3 species of Myriapoda (Chilopoda) were identified.

Ranthambore, Rajasthan: Twenty examples belonging to 2 species of Coleoptera (Scrabaeid) were studied and identified.

Biosphere Reserves

Detailed taxonomic studies on faunal groups of Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve, M.P. was undertaken and during this period 130 examples belonging to 31 species of Lepidoptera and 15 examples pertaining to Coleoptera were studied and identified.

Tiger Reserve

Melghat, Maharashtra : Nine example belonging to 4 species of Mollusca, 22 example pertaining to 10 species of Crustacea, 32 examples comprising 15 species of Odonata, 16 examples consisting of 6 species of Diptera, 2 examples of 2 species of Arachnida, 9 examples under 4 species of Lepidoptera and 179 examples belonging to 16 species of Pisces were identified.

Agasthamalai, Tamil Nadu: Studies on the hemipteran fauna completed which included 28 species under 19 genera and 7 families

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Fig 19. A white bellied sea eagle (haliaetus leucogaster) – an endangered species

Wildlfe Sanctuaries

Biligiri Rangaswamy, Karnataka : Seven ninty eight examples belonging to 25 species of aquatic Hemiptera and 487 examples pertaining to 12 species of Pisces were studied and identified.

Kiamur, Bihar: Twenty three examples under 5 species of Amphibia and 4 examples belonging to 2 species of Reptilia (Squamata) were identified.

Indira Gandhi, Tamil Nadu: Twenty three examples consisting of 5 species of Amphibia and 4 examples of 2 species of Reptilia were identified.

Parambikulam, Kerala: Identification work on the material collected from this sanctuary was completed and preparation of manuscript for publication is in progress.

Asola Bhatti, Delhi: Forty examples comprising 7 species of Hymenoptera, 8 examples belonging to 2 species of Amphibia and 2 examples consisting of 2 species of Reptilia were studied and identified.

Index

Fauna of Important Ecosystems

Wetlands

Loktak Lake, Manipur: Taxonomic studies on the fauna of this lake were completed and manuscript is under preparation.

Pong, Himachal Pradesh: Twenty five examples belonging to 1 species of Annelida: Oligochaeta, 28 examples pertaining to 3 species of Pisces and 16 examples consisting of 3 species of Amphibia were identified.

Nathsagar, Maharashtra: Four examples of 2 species of Mollusca and 1 example of 1 species of Pisces were recognised.

Jaikwadi, Maharashtra: Studies on this wetland has been initiated and 27 examples, belonging to 4 species of plaktonic Cladocera were studied.

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Fig 20. Blue tiger butterfly

Keoladeo Ghana, Rajasthan: The water samples collected from wetland of this National Park were analysed for various physico-chemical parameters. Besides, 7 examples pertaining to 7 species of Rotifera, 50 examples belonging to 12 species of Odonata and 16 examples of 16 species of Lepidoptera were identified.

Sambhar Lake, Rajasthan: The studies on the fauna of this lake were completed and manuscript is in final stage.

Wetlands of Doon Valley, U.P.: One twenty one examples belonging to 8 species of Pisces were examined and identified.

Estuarine Ecosystem

Krishna Estuary: Four twenty one examples belonging to 77 species of Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura, 103 examples pertaining to 30 species of Crustacea: Decapoda: Macrura, 390 examples consisting of 92 species of Mollusca, 462 examples comprising of 137 species of Pisces were studied and identified.

Marine and Coastal Ecosystem

Kerala Coast: One thirty seven examples belonging to 44 species of Pisces were recognised.

Andhra Coast: One twenty eight examples pertaining to 20 species of Mollusca were identified.

Palk Bay Coast: Twenty examples belonging to 2 species of Decapoda : Crustacea were identified.

Andaman & Nicobar Islands : The Chaetognatha material collected during 14th cruise of ‘Sagar Sampada’ from the sea around these islands were studied and distribution map of two important species of Sagitta were prepared.

Tropical Rainforest/ Western Ghat Ecosystem

One thirty examples (25 species) of Odonata, 225 examples (30 species) of Hymenoptera, 351 examples (25 species) of Pisces and 39 examples (7 species) of Amphibia collected from different district of Kerala were studied and identified.

Desert Ecosystem

Ladakh Cold Desert, J&K: Fifty examples belonging to 2 species of Oligochaeta, 81 examples pertaining to 10 species of Pisces and 87 examples consisting of 2 species of Amphibia were identified.

Index

Ecological Studies

The following studies pertaining to various ecosystems were continued as ongoing projects during the year.

Index

EIA Studies

During the year, Environmental Impact Studies on Lower Penganga Irrigation Project, Sawantwadi – Sindhudurg, Maharashtra were undertaken.

Index

Other Studies

Index

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Fig 21. Nilgiri Tahr

Identification and Advisory Services

ZSI continued to render identification and advisory services free of cost to research and teaching institutes in India and abroad, central and state government agencies, non governmental organisation, industries and individuals on all zoological matters. During this period 191 inquiries pertaining to different groups of fauna were attended to.

Index

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Fig 22. Sarus crane (Grus antigone) - the only resident crane of India

Development of National Zoological Collection

ZSI, which is the national repository of all Zoological specimens, maintains the collection of a large number of identified examples of species belonging to almost all groups of animals of the country. The National Zoological Collection was further enriched by 20, 163 examples belonging to 1,657 species including 16 new species.

Index

Training and Extension

The following Training Courses were organised during the period:

Index

Publications

The following publications were released during the period under report:

Departmental publications amounting to Rs 3.0 lakh were sold.

Index

Other Activities

Index

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Fig 23. Deciduous forests in Satpura Conservation Area

Forest Survey of India

Introduction

Established in June 1981, the Forest Survey of India (FSI) is entrusted with the responsibility of survey of forest resource in the country. The FSI has four zonal offices located at Bangalore. Calcutta, Nagpur and Shimla with headquarter at Dehra Dun.

The primary objective of the FSI are:

Activities undertaken by the FSI during the year are as follows:

Index

Vegetation Mapping

One of the main objectives of Forest Survey of India is to assess forest cover of the country in biennial cycle using remote sensing data. The assessment is based on visual and digital method of interpretation of the satellite data which is procured from National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad. For visual interpretation, hard copies in the form of satellite imageries are procured on 1:250,000 scale whereas for digital interpretation, data is procured in form of Compact Disks (CDs). Interpretation of satellite data is followed by ground verification and necessary corrections are incorporated before generating final maps and making area calculations. The final maps show forest cover in two density classes i.e. dense forest and open forest and mangrove. In the last assessment, published in SFR-1999, forest cover assessment has been done by digital method in 13 states which constitute 63% of the total forest area of the country. For the state where digital method of interpretation has been used, it is possible to generate forest cover maps on 1:50,000 scale.

Digital Image processing facility in the organization has been further upgraded by acquisition of five work stations along with new DIP softwares and necessary peripherals. Four more workstations, necessary softwares and peripherals have been procured to strengthen zonal offices for undertaking the work of digital interpretation and special studies. It has now been planned that the forest cover of the entire country will be assessed by digital method in the nest assessment.

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Fig 24. A view of Pakshipadalam— “Sholas” at an altitude of 1500 mt.

A Digital Cartography System (DCS) was procured in 1996 for preparing good quality maps. The system has however been used on a limited scale only as the required technical manpower is yet to be recruited.

The first assessment of the forest cover of the country was done based on visual interpretation of satellite imageries for the period 1981-83 and the first National Vegetation map was prepared in 1987 on 1:1 million scale. Forest Survey of India, which used Landsat satellite data earlier, has now completely switched over to the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite data for the assessment of the forest cover. The SFR 1999 is the seventh report in the series of biennial reports, published by the FSI since 1987 and it presents a comprehensive account of forest cover of the country and its dynamics over the previous assessment (SFR 1997).

The total forest cover of the country has been estimated to be 63.73 million ha. i.e. 19.39% of the geographic area of the country. The dense forest (crown density more the 40%) and open forest (10%-40%) and the mangroves occupy 11.48%, 7.76% and 0.15% of the geographic area of the country respectively as given in Table-2 and 3.

Table - 2

Forest cover as per 1999 assessment

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Class		Area in sq.km	Percentage of geographic area
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Dense forest	377,358			11.48	
Open forest	255,064			7.76
Mangrove	4,871			0.15

Sub-total	637,293			19.39

Scrub		51,896			1.58
Non-forest	2,598,074		79.03
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Total		3,287,263		100.00
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Table - 3

Extent of dense forest, open forest and mangrove in States/UTs

												      (sq.km)
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State/UT		Dense forest	Open forest	Mangrove	Total forest 	Percent of 	Scrub
									cover		geographic
											area
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Andhra Pradesh		24,190		19,642		397		44,229		16.08		9,559	
Arunachal Pradesh	57,756		11,091		0		68,847		82.21		104	
Assam			14,517		9,171		0		23,688		30.20		324	
Bihar			13,274		13,200		0		26,474		15.23		1,914	
Delhi			35		53		0		88		5.93		3	
Goa			995		251		5		1,251		33.79		16	
Gujarat			6,430		5,504		1,031		12,965		6.61		2,948	
Haryana			449		515		0		964		2.18		191	
Himachal Pradesh	9,120		3,962		0		13,082		23.50		566	
Jammu & Kashmir		11,019		9,422		0		20,441		9.20		3,089	
Karnataka		24,832		7,632		3		32,467		16.93		4,489	
Kerala			8,429		1,894		0		10,323		26.56		91	
Madhya Pradesh		81,619		50,211		0		131,830		29.73		3,853	
Maharashtra		26,613		19,951		108		46,672		15.17		7,160	
Manipur			5,936		11,448		0		17,384		77.86		177	
Meghalaya		5,925		9,708		0		15,633		69.70		261	
Mizoram			3,786		14,552		0		18,338		86.99		125	
Nagaland		5,137		9,027		0		14,164		85.43		14	
Orissa			26,073		20,745		215		47,033		30.21		5,439	
Punjab			517		895		0		1,412		2.80		107	
Rajasthan		4,309		9,562		0		13,871		4.05		6,921	
Sikkim			2,363		755		0		3,118		43.94		386	
Tamil Nadu		8,659		8,398		21		17,078		13.13		2,836	
Tripura			2,228		3,517		0		5,745		54.79		38	
Uttar Pradesh		22,902		11,114		0		34,016		11.55		1,177	
West Bengal		3,565		2,672		2,125		8,362		9.42		98	
A & N Islands		6,515		125		966		7,606		92.21		0	
Chandigarh		6		1		0		7		6.14		0	
Dadar & Nagar Haveli	159		43		0		202		41.14		10	
Daman & Diu		0		3		0		3		2.68		0	
Lakshadweep		0		0		0		0		0		0	
Pondicherry		0		0		0		0		0		0	
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Total			377,358		255,064		4,871		637,293		19.39		51,896	
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There has been an increase of 3,896 sq.km of forest cover between 1997 and 1999 assessments. Major gains were recorded in Andhra Pradesh (939 sq.km). Madhya Pradesh (635sq.km), Rajasthan (618 sq.km.), Himachal Pradesh (561 sq.km.) Maharashtra (529 sq.km.) while Mizoram showed major loss of 437 sq. km.

Index

Thematic Mapping

FSI is engaged in preparing thematic maps on a scale of 1:50,000 by interpretation of aerial photographs. These maps depict the forest types, species composition, crown density of forest cover and other land use. Every year about 5,000 aerial photographs corresponding to 260 topographical sheets (1:50,000) of Survey of India are to be interpreted, These maps are to be prepared for the entire country on a ten year cycle. However it could not be achieved because of problems associated with procurement of aerial photographs. About 75% forested area of the country has been covered so far. The aerial photographs of an area available are normally more than 5 years old and their procurement take more than a year. After procurement the process of interpretation, transference and preparation of thematic maps takes yet another 3 to 4 years. Hence, the information about forest stock is generally more than 10 years old and hence of little relevance. It is felt that these maps are hardly being utilized due to outdated information. Considering the above facts the thematic mapping target has been reduced from 260 to 50 sheets per year.

Index

Inventory of Tree Resources of Non Forest Area

Keeping in view the important role played by forestry plantations and to assess the impact of social forestry and other forestry extension programmes in meeting fuelwood and timber needs of the people and raw material requirements of the wood based industries, survey of plantation outside conventional forest has also been initiated by the FSI. The survey of NFA has been completed in Haryana. The availability of seven times more wood outside the forest with respect to that inside forest reflects a great potential of wood production in these areas. Similar surveys have been initiated in Western U.P. Punjab, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar and Rajasthan. Inventory in NFA upto 2000 has been carried out in 1.22 lakhs sq.km of area.

Index

Forest Inventory

Since its inception as Preinvestment Survey of Forest Resources (PISFR) in 1965. Field inventory has been one of the most important activities of Forest Survey of India. During the sixteenth years of existence, PISFR carried out ground inventory over a forest area of 2.28 lakhs sq. km. in India and 0.38 lakhs sq.km. in Nepal and Bhutan. After creation of the Forest Survey of India (FSI) in 1981, it has carried out field inventories in an additional area of 4.32 lakhs sq.km. till 2000. Methodology adopted by the FSI for carrying out field inventories is based on the stratified random sampling with standard error ± 10%.

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Fig 25. Blue pined forest in west Himalaya

An inventory report prepared by the FSI gives details of area estimates, topographic description, classification, rate of forest (healthy or degraded), ownership pattern, estimation of volume and other growth parameters such as height and diameter in different types of forest, estimation of growth regeneration and mortality of important species, volume equation and wood consumption of the area studied.

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Electronic Data Processing

The objective of the Electronic Data Processing unit is to provide qualitative and quantitative information about the forest resources of the country. This unit functions as the national forest data bank by storing relevant data on forest inventory.

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Training

FSI organises 8 to 10 training programmes for forestry personnel on various aspects such as application of remote sensing techniques in forestry including GIS, forest inventory and electronic data processing. The duration of training varies from one week to four weeks depending on the level of personnel and the objective of the training. One week compulsury training course is orgainsed for the Indian Forest Service Officers. Two week training couse is organised for the Working Plan Officers to expose them to the use of remote sensing techniques in preparation of working plans, updating stock maps, ground inventory and data processing. Another two week training is imparted to SFS officers to equip them with usage of remote sensing techniques in forestry. Four week training is imparted to Forest Range Officers to train them in interpretation of satelite data and aerial photographs, forest inventory and electronic data processing. The skills of the technical staff of FSI are also updated through suitably designed training courses.

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The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Forest and Plantation Development Corporation Ltd., Port Blair

The Andaman & Nicobar Islands Forest and Plantation Development Corporation Ltd., a Government of India undertaking has an authorised capital of Rs. 600 lakhs. The paid up share capital is Rs.359.18 lakhs, all the share capital being held by the Central Government. The Company started functioning in 1977 and is a category ‘C’ Central Public Sector Undertaking. The corporation has also financed its capital from the resources generated internally.

The main activities of the Corporation during the year were timber logging and regeneration, oil palm cultivation and processing and commercial management of rubber plantation. The Corporation is also in the process to diversify its activities wherever possible within the ambit of its objectives.

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