Valmiki was established as the 18th tiger reserve in 1990 in the forests Of West Champaran in Bihar. The total area is 840 sq.kms and 335.6 sq.km forms the core area of this tiger reserve.
The Royal Chitwan National Park in Nepal borders the northern side and the river Gandak the western side. Rhinos have been known to migrate into the reserve across the border. The forests of this area include, natural Sal forests, moist mixed deciduous forests Khair-sissoo forests, Cane, eastern wet alluvial grass lands and swamps containing reed beds. The canebrakes that occur in the wet hollow depressions provide good shelter for the carnivores. In 1989 there were estimated to be 80 tigers and 31 leopards. The forests, grasslands and swamps support populations of hog deer, spotted deer, sambar, sloth bear, barking deer, four horned antelope, Nilgai and many others.
There is no Population estimation of wild animals being carried out at regular levels.
There are no villages in the core but there are 8 villages in the buffer that depend entirely on the natural resources of this reserve for firewood, thatch, timber and minor forest produce. A population of 32,000 livestock extert pressure on the area for grazing.
'Project Tiger' as a scheme has not been implemented in the area as the area is still not under the control of the Chief Wildlife Warden who is the administrative head of wildlife in the state. It is also not notified as a National Park. The area faces serious problems due to the non-functioning of Project Tiger since its control is in the hands of the forest development corporation. This is a fragile habitat that borders Nepal and could be vulnerable to both smuggling and poaching. Efforts are underway to immediately ratify its control and status in order to review and assess it, and contain the threats that it might be facing. A couple of years ago O.N.G.C violated the Forest Conservation Act (1980) and started drilling operations inside the Park. This was stopped and O.N.G.C penalised to the tune of 1 crore.
In the interest and welfare Of Our forests and their wild inhabitants it is essential and vital to quickly implement schemes of great significance like Project Tiger. A 3 year delay in this process can create serious consequences for future Of Valmiki, exceedingly vulnerable to exploitation Poaching and smuggling as it borders Nepal.